Vol. 10 No. 1 (2022): Business & Management Studies: An International Journal
Articles

The effect of psychological capital and leader-member exchange on job crafting and organizational synergy: The case of a public hospital

Sevgi Demiray
PhD student, Istanbul Aydın University, Institute of Graduate Study, Istanbul, Turkey
Necmiye Tülin İrge
Asst. Prof., Dr., Istanbul Aydın University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey

Published 2022-03-26

Keywords

  • Psikolojik Sermaye, Lider Üye Etkileşimi, İş Becerikliliği, Örgütsel Sinerji, Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli
  • Psychological Capital, Leader-Member Exchange, Job Crafting, Organizational Synergy, Structural Equation Modeling

How to Cite

Demiray, S., & İrge, N. T. (2022). The effect of psychological capital and leader-member exchange on job crafting and organizational synergy: The case of a public hospital. Business &Amp; Management Studies: An International Journal, 10(1), 261–279. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v10i1.1998

Abstract

Psychological capital is of great importance for organizations to gain sustainable competitive advantage and reach organizational goals through the effective use of human resources. The theory of leader-member exchange focuses on the main characteristic of the relationships between the leader and the employees, ensures that these relationships occur at different levels with each employee, and affect several behaviours of the organization, particularly performance. The most critical behavioural outcomes of the psychological capital and leader-member exchange concepts are organizational synergy and job crafting. For healthcare professionals with busy and stressful working hours, their psychological capital would strengthen motivation through the leader-member exchange, thus, supporting job crafting and organizational synergy. This study aims to reveal the effect of psychological capital and leader-member exchange on job crafting and organizational synergy in healthcare personnel through structural equation modelling. As a result of the analyses, it was determined that psychological capital and leader-member exchange were significantly and positively related to job crafting and organizational synergy, and psychological capital was a more vital influencer than leader-member exchange. It is expected that this study will raise awareness among managers and decision-makers working in the healthcare sector, serve as a guide, and also create an input for future studies.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

  1. Ahmad, H., Ahmad, K., & Shah, I. A. (2010). Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Job Performance Attitude towards Work and Organizational Commitment. European Journal of Social Sciences, 18(2), 257-267.
  2. Akçay, V. H. (2014). Psikolojik sermaye ölçeği uyarlaması: geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması [Psychological Capital Scale Adaptation Study]. Üçüncü Sektör Sosyal Ekonomi, 49(2), 72-84.
  3. Akkoç, İ. (2012). Grup ve Hiyerarşik Alt Kültürlerin İş Performansına Etkisi: Lider Üye Etkileşiminin Aracılık Rolü. Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 3(2), 17-44.
  4. Anjum, M. A., Ahmed, S. J., & Karim, J. (2014). Do psychological capabilities really matter? The combined effects of psychological capital and peace of mind on work centrality and in-role performance, Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 8(2), 502-520.
  5. Aslaner, F. & Artan, İ. H. (2019). Pozitif psikolojik sermayenin lider-üye etkileşimi vasıtasıyla bireysel performansı etkilemedeki rolü: perakende sektöründe bir araştırma. Business and Management Studies: An International Journal, 7(4), 1657-1689.
  6. Avolio, B. (2010). Pursuing authentic leadership development. In N. Nohria & R. Khurana (Eds.), Handbook of leadership theory and practice: A Harvard Business School centennial colloquium (pp.739-768). Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Publishing.
  7. Avey, J. B., Patera, J. L., & West, B. J. (2006). The Implications of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Absenteeism. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13, 42-60.
  8. Avey, J. B., Luthans, F., Smith, R. M. & Palmer, N. F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 17-28.
  9. Aziri, B. (2011). Job Satisfaction A Literature Review, Management Research And Practice, 3(4), 77-86.
  10. Bakker, A.B., Tims, M. & Derks, D. (2012). Proactive personality and job performance: the role of job crafting and work engagement. Human Relations, 65(10), 1359-1378.
  11. Baş, T., Keskin, N. & Mert, İ. S. (2010). Lider Üye Etkileşimi (LÜE) Modeli ve Ölçme Aracının Türkçede Geçerlik ve Güvenilirlik Analizi [Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Model and Validity and Reliability of its Instrument in Turkish]. Ege Akademik Bakış, 10(3), 1013-1039.
  12. Bauer, T. N., Erdoğan, B., Liden, R. C., & Wayne, S. J., (2006). A Longitudinal Study of the Moderating Role of Extraversion: Leader-Member Exchange, Performance and Turnover during New Executive Development, Journal of Applied Psychology,91(2), 98-310.
  13. Berdicchia, D. & Masino, G. (2017). Exploring the Antecedents of Job Crafting: A Conditional Process Analysis. International Journal of Business and Management. 12(1),1-14.
  14. Bilen, A., Mete, M. & Uludağ, G. (2016). Lider Üye Etkileşiminin, İşgören Performansına Etkileri Üzerine Bir Araştırma, 2. Uluslararası Ekonomi ve İşletmecilik Kongresi Bildiriler Kitabı, 472-483.
  15. Borgogni, L., Dello Russo, S., Petitta, L. and Vecchione, M. (2010). Predicting job satisfaction and job performance in a privatized organization, International Public Management Journal, 13(3), 275-296.
  16. Breevaart, K., Bakker, A.B., Demerouti, E., & Van Den Heuvel, M. (2015).Leader-member exchange, work engagement, and job performance, Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7),754 -770.
  17. Burton, R.M., Lauridsen, J. & Obel, B. (2004). The impact of organizational climate and strategic fit on firm performance. Hum. Resour. Manage. 43(1), 67-82.
  18. Carmona-Halty, M., Salanova, M., Llorens, S. & Schaufeli, W. B. (2019). How psychological capital mediates between study-related positive emotions and academic performance. Journal of Happiness Studies, 20(2), 605-617.
  19. Carmeli, A., Gelbard, R. & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2013). Leadership, creative problem-solving capacity, and creative performance: the importance of knowledge sharing. Hum. Resour. Manag. 52(1), 95-121.
  20. Carter, J. W. & Youssef-Morgan, C. M. (2019). The positive psychology of mentoring: A longitudinal analysis of psychological capital development and performance in a formal mentoring program. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 30(3), 383-405.
  21. Carlborg, P., Kindstrom, D. & Kowalkowski, C. (2013). A lean approach for service productivity improvements: synergy or oxymoron? Managing Service Quality. 23(4), 291-304.
  22. Cekmecelioglu, H. G. & Ulker, F. (2014). Lider-Üye Etkileşimi ve Çalışan Tutumları Üzerindeki Etkisi: Eğitim Sektöründe Bir Araştırma, Kocaeli Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 28, 35-58.
  23. Chen, J. (2012). Synergy Innovation, Theoretical Basis and Content for in Industry-University-Research Institute, 30 (2), 161-164.
  24. Chen, J. K. & Chen, I. S. (2013). A theory of innovation resource synergy. Innovation-Management Policy & Practice. 15(3), 368-392.
  25. Covey, S. R. (1998). Etkili insanların yedi alışkanlığı [The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People], İstanbul: Varlık Publications.
  26. Dansereau, F. & Graen, G. & Haga, W. (1975). A Vertical Dyad Linkage Approach to Leadership Within Formal Organizations. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance. 13. 46-78.
  27. Datu, J. A. D., King, R. B. & Valdez, J. P. M. (2018). Psychological capital bolsters motivation, engagement, and achievement: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 13(3), 260-270.
  28. De Beer, L.T., Tims, M., and Bakker, A. B. (2016). Job crafting and its impact on work engagement and job satisfaction in mining and manufacturing. South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, 19(3), 400-412.
  29. Demerouti, E. (2014). Design Your Own Job Through Job Crafting, European Psychologist, 19(4), 237–247.
  30. Dulebohn, J.H., Bommer, W.H., Liden, R.C., Brouer, R.L. & Ferris, G.R. (2012). A meta-analysis of antecedents and consequences of leader-member exchange: integrating the past with an eye toward the future, Journal of Management, 38(6), 1715-1759.
  31. Ferratt, T. W., Prasad, J. & Enns, H. G. (2012). Synergy and its limits in managing information technology professionals. Information Systems Research, 23, 1175-1194.
  32. Garzella, S. & Fiorentino, R. (2014). A synergy measurement model to support the pre-deal decision making in mergers and acquisitions, Management Decision, 52(6), 1194-1216.
  33. Garg, K., Dar, I. A. & Mishra, M. (2018). Job satisfaction and work engagement: A study using private sector bank managers. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(1), 58-71.
  34. Graen, G., Cashman, J. F., Ginsburg, S., & Schiemann, W. (1977). Effects of linking-pin quality on the quality of working life of lower participants. Administrative Science Quarterly, 491-504.
  35. Graen, G. B., Novak, M. A., & Sommerkamp, P. (1982). The Effects of Leader-Member Exchange and Job Design on Productivity and Satisfaction: Testing the Dual Attachment Mode, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance 30(1), 109–31.
  36. Gerstner, C. R., & Day, D. V. (1997). Meta-Analytic review of leader-member exchange theory: Correlates and construct issues. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82(6), 827–844.
  37. Han, G. & Jekel, M. (2011). The mediating role of job satisfaction between leader-member exchange and turnover intentions. Journal of Nursing Management, 19(1), 41-49.
  38. Holubčík, M. (2015). Cooperation as base for synergy. Economy & Society & Environment, 1(1),1-6.
  39. Ingusci, E., Callea, A., Chirumbolo, A. & Urbini, F. (2016) Job crafting and job satisfaction in a sample of Italian teachers: the mediating role of perceived organizational support, Electronic Journal of Applied Statistical Analysis, 9(4), 675-687.
  40. Islam, T., Khan, S. U. R., Ahmad, U. N. U. & Ahmed, I. (2013). Organizational learning culture and leader-member exchange quality. Learn. Organ. 20(2), 322–337.
  41. Janssen, O., and Yperen, N.W. (2004). Employees’ Goal Orientations, the Quality of Leader-Member Exchange, and The Outcomes of Job Performance and Job Satisfaction, Academy of Management Journal, 47(3), 368-384.
  42. Joo, B. K. (2010). Organizational commitment for knowledge workers: the roles of perceived organizational learning culture, leader-member exchange quality, and turnover intention. Hum. Resour. Dev. Q. 21(1), 69-85.
  43. Kaya, A. (2014). Development of synergistic climate scale: The reliability and validity of Turkish and Slovakian forms, Educational Research and Reviews, 9(20), 938-953.
  44. Kerse, G. (2017). İş becerikliliği (job crafting) ölçeğini Türkçeye uyarlama ve duygusal tükenme ile ilişkisini belirleme, İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 9(4), 283-304.
  45. Kim, S. L., Han, S., Son, S. Y. & Yun, S. (2017). Exchange ideology in supervisor-subordinate dyads, LMX, and knowledge sharing: a social exchange perspective. Asia Pac. J. Manag. 34(1), 147-172.
  46. Kim, T. Y., Liu, Z. & Diefendorff, J. M. (2015). Leader-member exchange and job performance: the effects of taking charge and organizational tenure. J. Organ. Behav. 36, 216-231.
  47. Kim, M., Oja, B., Kim, H. S., Chin, J-H. (2020). Developing Student-Athlete School Satisfaction and Psychological Well-Being: The Effects of Academic Psychological Capital and Engagement, Journal of Sport Management, 34(4), 378-390.
  48. King, R. B., Pitliya, R. J. & Datu, J. A. (2020). Psychological capital drives optimal engagement via positive emotions in work and school contexts. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 23(4), 457-468.
  49. Krishnan, V. R. (2005). Leader-Member Exchange, Transformational Leadership, and Value System. EJBO - Electronic Journal of Business Ethics and Organization Studies, 10 (1),1-17.
  50. Laschinger, H., Purdy, N. & Almost, J. (2007). The Impact of Leader-Member Exchange Quality, Empowerment, and Core Self-evaluation on Nurse Manager's Job Satisfaction. The Journal of nursing administration. 37(2), 221-229.
  51. Lasker, R. D. & Weiss, E. S. (2003). Creating Partnership Synergy: The Critical Role of Community Stakeholders. J. Health Hum. Services Admin. 26(1),119-139.
  52. Li, A. N. & Liao, H. (2014). How do leader-member exchange quality and differentiation affect performance in teams? An integrated multilevel dual process model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 847-866.
  53. Li, Y., Fu, F., Sun, J. M. & Yang, B. (2016). Leader‐member exchange differentiation and team creativity: An investigation of nonlinearity. Human Relations, 69, 1121–1138.
  54. Liden, R., & Graen, G. (1980). Generalizability of the vertical dyad linkage model of leadership. Academy of Management Journal, 23, 451-465.
  55. Liden, R., Sparrowe, R. & Wayne, S. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management. 15,1-17.
  56. Liden, R. & Maslyn, J. M. (1998), Multidimensionality of Leader-Member Exchange: An Empirical Assessment Through Scale Development, Journal of Management, 24 (1), 43-72.
  57. Loi, R., Chan, K. W. & Lam, L. W. (2014). Leader-member exchange, organizational identification, and job satisfaction: A social identity perspective. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 87(1), 42-61.
  58. Locke, E. A. (1976). The nature and causes of job satisfaction. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp.1297-1349). Chicago: Rand McNally.
  59. Lonsdale, D. J. (2016). The effects of leader-member exchange and the feedback environment on organizational citizenship and withdrawal. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 19(1), 41–59.
  60. Luo, B. & Cheng, S. P. (2014). Leader-member exchange, efficacy and job performance: A cognitive perspective interpretation. Canadian Social Science, 10(5), 244-248.
  61. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B. & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572.
  62. Luthans, F., Norman, S. M., Avolio, B. J. & Avey, J. B. (2008). The mediating role of psychological capital in the supportive organizational climate–employee performance relationship. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 29(2), 219-238.
  63. Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M. & Avolio, B. J. (2015). Psychological Capital and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press.
  64. Luthans, F. & Youssef-Morgan, C. M. (2017). Psychological capital: An evidence-based positive approach. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behaviour, 4, 339-366.
  65. Markham, S. E., Yammarino, F. J., Murray, W. D. & Palanski, M. E. (2010). Leader-member exchange, shared values, and performance: Agreement and levels of analysis do matter. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(3), 469-480.
  66. Martin, R., Guillaume, Y., Thomas, G., Lee, A. Epitropaki, O. (2015). Leader-member exchange (LMX) and performance: A meta-analytic review. Personnel Psychology, 69(1), 67-121.
  67. Niessen, C., Weseler, D. & Kostova, P. (2016). When and why do individuals craft their jobs? the role of individual motivation and work characteristics for job crafting, Human Relations, 69(6), 1287-1313.
  68. Olsson, L., Hemlin, S. & Pousette, A. (2012). A multi-level analysis of leader-member exchange and creative performance in research groups. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 604-619.
  69. Ozutku, H., Agca, V., & Cevrioglu, E. (2008). Lider-Üye Etkileşim Teorisi Çerçevesinde, Yönetici-Ast Etkileşimi ile Örgütsel Bağlılık Boyutları ve İş Performansı Arasındaki İlişki: Ampirik Bir İnceleme, Afyonkarahisar Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 22(2), 193- 210.
  70. Park, S., Sturman, M. C., Vanderpool, C. & Chan, E. (2015). Only time will tell: The changing relationships between LMX, job performance, and justice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 660-680.
  71. Peeters, M. & Tuijl, H. & Rutte, C. & Reymen, I. (2012). Personality and team performance: A meta-analysis. European Journal of Personality, 20, 377-396.
  72. Peterson, S. J., Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Walumbwa, F. O. & Zhang, Z. (2011). Psychological capital and employee performance: A latent growth modelling approach. Personnel Psychology, 64(2), 427-450.
  73. Petrou, P., Demerouti, E., Peeters, M.C.W., Schaufeli, W.B. & Hetland, J. (2012). Crafting a Job on A Daily Basis: Contextual Correlates and The Link to Work Engagement, Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 33, 1120-1141.
  74. Petrou, P., Demerouti, E. & Xanthopoulo, D. (2016). Regular versus cutback-related change: The role of employee job crafting in organizational change contexts of different nature. International Journal of Stress Management, 24, 62-85.
  75. Power, R. L. (2013). Leader-member exchange theory in higher and distance education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14 (4), 277-284.
  76. Qi, J., Zhang, K., Fu, X., Zhao, X. & Wang, L. (2019). The effects of leader-member exchange, internal social capital, and thriving on job crafting. Social Behaviour and Personality: An international journal, 47(6), 1-10.
  77. Radstaak, M. & Hennes, A. (2017). Leader–member exchange fosters work engagement: The mediating role of job crafting. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. 43, 1-12.
  78. Rockstuhl, T., Dulebohn, J. H., Ang, S. & Shore, L. M. (2012). Leader–member exchange (LMX) and culture: A meta-analysis of correlates of LMX across 23 countries, Journal of Applied Psychology, 97(6), 1097–1130.
  79. Scandura, T. A., & Graen, G. B. (1984). Moderating Effects of Initial Leader-Member Exchange Status on the Effects of a Leadership Intervention, Journal of Applied Psychology 69(1), 428–436.
  80. Schyns, B., Paul, T., Mohr, G., & Blank, H. (2005). Comparing Antecedents and Consequences of Leader-Member Exchange in a German Working Context to Finding in the US, European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14 (1), 1-22.
  81. Sepdiningtyas, R. & Santoso, C. B. (2017). The Influence of Leader-Member Exchange on Individual Performance: The Roles of Work Engagement as a Mediating Variable and Coworkers Support as a Moderating Variable. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 6(4), 285-305.
  82. Siu, O. L. (2013). Psychological capital, work well-being, and work-life balance among Chinese employees: A cross-lagged analysis. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 12(1), 170-81.
  83. Slemp, G. R. & Vella-Brodrick, D.A. (2013). The Job crafting questionnaire: a new scale to measure the extent to which employees engage in job crafting, International Journal of Wellbeing, 3(2), 126-146.
  84. Slemp, G. R., Kern, M. L. & Vella-Brodrick, D. A. (2015). Workplace well-being: the role of job crafting and autonomy support, Psychology of Well-Being, 5(7), 1-17.
  85. Someh, I. A. & Shanks, G. (2013). The role of synergy in achieving value from business analytics systems, Knowledge Management and Business Intelligence, 1(1), 1-16.
  86. Tims, M., & Bakker, A. B. (2010). Job crafting: Towards a new model of individual job redesign. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 36, 1-9.
  87. Tims, M., Bakker, A. B. & Derks, D. (2012). Development and validation of the job crafting scale, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 80, 173-186.
  88. Tims, M., Bakker, A. B. & Derks, D. (2013). The impact of job crafting on job demands, job resources, and well-being. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 230-240.
  89. Toor, S-R. & Ofori, G. (2010). Positive Psychological Capital as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Organizations. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, 136, 341-352.
  90. Travaglianti, F., Babic, A. & Hansez, I. (2016). The role of work-related needs in the relationship between job crafting, Burnout and Engagement, SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 42(1), 1-13.
  91. Turgut, H., Tokmak, İ., Ateş, M.F. (2015). ‘Lider-Üye Etkileşiminin İşgören Performansına Etkisinde Çalışanların Örgütsel Adalet Algılarının Rolü’, Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 5(2), 417-442.
  92. Van Dam, K. (2013). Employee adaptability to change at work: A multidimensional, resource-based framework. In S. Oreg, A. Michel, & R.T. By (Eds.), The Psychology of Organizational Change: Viewing change from the employee’s perspective (pp. 123-142). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  93. Vecchio, R. & Gobdel, B. (1984). The Vertical Dyad Linkage Model of Leadership: Problems and Prospects, Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, 34(1), 5-20.
  94. Vogt, K., Hakanen, J. J., Brauchli, R., Jenny, G. J., & Bauer, G. F. (2016). The consequences of job crafting: a three-wave study. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 25(3), 353-362.
  95. Walumbwa, F. O., Hartnell, C. A., & Oke, A. (2010). Servant leadership, procedural justice climate, service climate, employee attitudes, and organizational citizenship behaviour: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(3), 517–529.
  96. Wang, T., Jiao, Y., Montell, C. (2005). Dissecting independent channel and scaffolding roles of the Drosophila transient receptor potential channel. J. Cell Biol., 171(4), 685-694.
  97. Wang, H., Sui, Y., Luthans, F., Wang, D. & Wu, Y. (2014). Impact of authentic leadership on performance: Role of followers’ positive psychological capital and relational processes. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 35, 5-21.
  98. Wayne, S. J., Shore, L. M. & Liden, R. C., (1997). Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange: A Social Exchange Perspective, Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 82-111.
  99. Wrzesniewski, A., LoBuglio, N., Dutton, J. E. & Berg, J. M. (2013). Job crafting and cultivating positive meaning and identity in work”, Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 281-302.
  100. Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A.B., Heuven, E., Demerouti, E. and Schaufeli, W.B. (2009). Working in the sky: a diary study on work engagement among flight attendants, Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,13(4), 345-356.
  101. Zhang, Z., Waldman, D. A. & Wang, Z. (2012). A multi-level investigation of leader-member exchange, informal leader emergence, and individual and team performance. Personnel Psychology, 65(1), 49-78.