TESTING THE EFFECTS OF CAREER DEVELOPMENT PROCESS ON ORGANISATIONAL COMMITMENT AND INTENTION TO LEAVE: A SAMPLE OF AVIATION GROUND SERVICE EMPLOYEES
- Kariyer Gelişimi,
- Örgütsel Bağlılık,
- İşten Ayrılma Niyeti
- Career Development,
- Organizational Commitment,
- Intent to Leave
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
- RESEARCH SUBJECT
In the business world, having qualified employees is very important for organisations that want to be successful by keeping up with the constant change and competitive environment. Career development services play an important role in hiring qualified employees and keeping them in the organisation. Employees perform better in their jobs when they receive career development services and do not want to leave the organisation that contributes to their career. Therefore, serving career development opportunities to employees provides various benefits for both organisations and employees.
- RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the organisational career development services, career commitment, and career development process on the organisational commitment and intent to leave.
- CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
The study has made a significant contribution to the literature by examining the personnel in the aviation sector. Because, in Turkey, the number of field researches in the aviation sector is not enough.
- DESIGN AND METHOD
- RESEARCH TYPE
The study is a research article. It is conducted a quantitative method in this research.
- RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The research question posed is as follows: Do the career development opportunities offered by organisations affect career commitment and career satisfaction of employees, increasing their commitment to the organisation or decreasing their intention to quit?
- DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The data collection method is the survey method. From the literature, the measurement tool was formed and applied to employees in the aviation ground services organisations in Turkey. The survey was conducted in Istanbul, Ankara, Mugla, and Adana. 600 personnel who agreed to participate in the survey took the questionnaire; 317 of them completed the questionnaire. The response rate of the surveys is 52.83%. Since 10 of the surveys contain insufficient information, 307 surveys were considered valid.
- QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
The Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), and the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Analysis were used in the study.
- RESEARCH MODEL
The model of the research is given below.
- RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H1: Career commitment has a positive effect on career development.
H2: Career commitment has a positive effect on organisational commitment.
H3: Career commitment has a negative effect on the intention to quit.
H4: Career development has a positive effect on career satisfaction.
H5: Career development has a positive effect on organisational commitment.
H6: Career development has a negative effect on the intention to quit.
H7: Career satisfaction has a positive effect on organisational commitment.
H8: Career satisfaction negatively affects the intention to quit.
H9: Organisational commitment has a negative effect on the intention to quit.
- FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
- FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
Career commitment has a positive, moderate effect on career development (c.r. 8,929; p <0.01; std. direct effect 0.52). Career commitment has a positive, low level effect on organisational commitment (c.r. 2.487; p <0.05; std. direct effect 0.22). Career development has a positive, high level effect on career satisfaction (c.r. 12.327; p <0.01; std. direct effect 0.73). Career development has a positive, medium-sized effect on organisational commitment (c.r. 3,780; p <0.01; std. direct effect 0.62)
- HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
H1, H2, H4, H5: Accepted. H3, H6, H7, H8, H9: Rejected.
- DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
In this study, the effects of organisational career development services, employees' commitment to their careers, and their level of satisfaction with achieving career goals on the aviation ground service employees' organisational commitment, and intention to leave were examined. EFA, CFA, and SEM Analysis results show that organisational career development services have an effect on aviation ground services employees' organisational commitment, and career satisfaction (literature supported), but show no effect on the intention to leave (literature not supported). Also, career development opportunities offered by the organisation were significant for the employees who have higher levels of career commitment.
- CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
- RESULTS of the ARTICLE
This study is a step towards meeting the need for field research in the aviation industry. It is significant for the literature. With the findings of the study, it has been tried to reveal the feelings and thoughts of aviation sector employees towards their organisations.
- SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
The indirect and mediating effects between this study's variables can be examined in the future. Also, the study can be replicated in the future using the same variables but with more participants.
- LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
The limitation of the study is the number of participants. Due to the difficulty in reaching personnel in the aviation sector, the number of participants' remained at a certain level.
- Abele, A. Spurk, D. (2009). How Do Objective and Scareer Success Interrelate Over Time?. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82, 803–824.
- Adzeh, K.J. (2013). Assessing the Influence of Organizational Commitment on Employee Perceptions of Superior Customer Value Creation (Doctoral Dissertation). Capella University, USA.
- Allen, N. Meyer, J.P. (1990). The Measurement and Antecedents of Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment to the Organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1). 1-18.
- Anderson, J.C. Gerbing, D.W. (1988). Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.
- Armstrong-Stassen, M. Ursel, N.D. (2009). Perceived Organizational Support, Career Satisfaction, and the Retention of Older Workers. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(1), 201–220.
- Aryee, S. Tan, K. (1992). Antecedents and Outcomes of Career Commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40, 288-305.
- Balfour, D.L. Wechsler, B. (1996). Organisational Commitment: Antecedents and Outcomes in Public Organisations. Public Productivity and Management Review. 19(3), 256–277.
- Barnett, B.R. Bradley, L. (2007). The Impact of Organisational Support for Career Development on Career Satisfaction. Career Development International, 12(7), 617-636.
- Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A Note on The Multiplying Factors for Various Chi Square Approximations. Journal of Royal Statistical Society, 16 (Series B), 296-298.
- Baruch, Y. Holtom, B.C. (2008). Survey Response Rate Levels and Trends in Organizational Research. Human Relations, 61(8), 1139-1160.
- Bateman, T. Strasser, S. (1984). A Longitudinal Analysis of the Antecedents of Organizational Commitment. Academy of Management Journal, 27(1), 95-112.
- Baykul, Y. Güzeller, C.O. (2014). Sosyal Bilimler İçin İstatistik (2. Baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
- Bayram, C. (2010). Kariyer Planlama ve Yönetimi. Istanbul: Kumsaati Yayın Dağıtım Ltd. Şti.
- Bayram, N. (2010). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesine Giriş, AMOS Uygulamaları. İstanbul: Ezgi Kitapevi.
- Becker, H:S. (1960). Notes on the Concept of Commitment. American Journal of Sociology, 66, 32-40.
- Bedeian, A. Kemery, E,R. Pizzolatto, A. (1991). Career Commitment and Expected Utility of Present Job as Predictors of Turnover İntentions and Turnover Behavior. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 331-343.
- Benkhoff, B. (1997). Ignoring Commitment is Costly: New Approaches Establish the Missing Link between Commitment and Performance. Human Relations, 50, 701-726.
- Bhattacherjee A. (2012). Social Science Research: Principles, Methods, and Practices, Textbooks Collection, Book 3, Retrived from: http://scholarcommons.usf.edu/oa_textbooks/3.
- Blau, G. (1985). The Measurement and Prediction of Career Commitment. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58, 277-288.
- Blau, G. (1989). Testing the Generalizability of a Career Commitment Measure and Its Impact on Employee Turnover. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35, 88-103.
- Buchanan, B. (1974). Building Organizational Commitment: The Socialisation of Managers in Work Organisations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 533-546.
- Carson, K. Philips, J.S. Roe, C.W. (1996). A Career Entrenchment Model: Theoretical Development and Empirical Outcomes. Journal of Career Development, 22(4), 273-286.
- CEDEFOP. (2008). Career Development at Work: A Review of Career Guidance to Support People in Employment. Cedefop Panorama Series No 151, Luxembourg: The European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training.
- Chandrashekaran, M. McNeilly, K. Russ, F.A. Marinova, D. (2002). From Uncertain Intentions to Actual Behavior: A Threshold Model of Whether and When Salespeople Quit. Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 463-479.
- Chang, E. (1999). Career Commitment as A Complex Moderator of Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intention. Human Relations, 52(10), 1257-1278.
- Chew, J. Chan, C.C.A. (2008). Human Resource Practices, Organizational Commitment and Intention to Stay. International Journal of Manpower, 29(6), 503-522.
- Cho, Y.J. Lewis, G.B. (2012). Turnover Intention and Turnover Behavior: Implications for Retaining Federal Employees. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 32(1), 4-23.
- Cohen, A. (2007). Commitment Before and After: An Evaluation and Reconceptualisation of Organizational Commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 17(3), 336-354.
- Cohen, L. Manion, L. Morrison, K. (2007). Research Methods in Education (6th Ed.). New York: Routledge/Taylor and Francis Group.
- Colquitt, J. Lepine, J.A. Wesson, M.J. (2015). Organisational Behavior: Improving Performance and Commitment in the Workplace (4th Ed.). New York: Mcgraw-Hill Education.
- Çokluk, Ö. Şekercioğlu, G. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2014). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli İstatistik: SPSS ve Lisrel Uygulamaları. (3. Baskı). Ankara: Pegem Akademi.
- Delery, J. Doty, D.H. (1996). Modes of Theorising in Strategic Human Resource Management: Tests Of Universalistic, Contingency, and Configurational Performance Predictions. Academy Of Management Journal, 39(4), 802-835.
- Demir, M. (2012). Örgütsel Destek, Örgütsel Bağlılık ve İşten Ayrılma Eğilimi İlişkisi: Havalimanı Yer Hizmetleri İşletmelerine Yönelik Bir Araştırma. İş, Güç Endüstri İlişkileri ve İnsan Kaynakları Dergisi, 14(1), 47-64.
- Demirer, Ö. (2010). İleri Üretim Teknolojileri, Rekabet Öncelikleri ve Firma Performansı Arasındaki İlişkiler Üzerine Amprik Bir İnceleme (Doktora Tezi). Niğde Üniversitesi, Niğde, Türkiye.
- Demirer, Ö. Gürbüz, E. (2018). Rekabetçi Öncelikler Ve Firma Performansı Üzerinde İleri İmalat Teknolojilerinin Aracılık Etkisi. Hitit Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 11(3), 1681-1699.
- Derven, M. (2015). From Career Conversations to Deliberate Action: Manager-Employee Career Discussions Are the First Step toward an All-Encompassing Organizational Career Development Program. TD Magazine, 69(2), 62-67.
- Diddams, M. Whittington, J.L. (2003). Revisiting the Meaning of Meaningful Work. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 508-517.
- Edwards, M. Bach, S. (2013). Human Resource Management in Transition. In S. Bach & M.R. Edwards (Ed.s), Managing Human Resources (5th Ed.) (pp. 3-17). England: Wiley Publication.
- Ercan, İ. Kan, İ. (2004). Ölçeklerde Güvenirlik ve Geçerlik. Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, 30(3), 211-216.
- Erkorkmaz, Ü. Etikan, İ. Demir, O. Özdamar, K. Sanisoğlu, S.Y. (2013). Doğrulayıcı Faktor Analizi ve Uyum İndeksleri. Türkiye Klinikleri Journal of Medical Science, 33(1), 210-223.
- Field, A. (2000). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows: Advanced Techniques for the Beginner. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Fornell, C. Larcker, D.F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
- Forza, C. (2002). Survey Research in Operations Management: A Process- Based Perspectives. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 22(2), 152-194.
- Garson, D. (2012). Testing Statistical Assumptions. Asheboro, NC: Statistical Publishing Associates.
- Gattiker, U. Larwood, L. (1989). Career Success, Mobility and Extrinsic Satisfaction of Corporate Managers. Social Science Journal, 26, 75–92.
- Gilley, J.W. Eggland, S.A. Gilley, A.M. (2002). Principles of Human Resource Development (2nd Ed.). New York: Basic Books.
- Goulet, L. Singh, P. (2002). Career Commitment: A Reexamination and an Extension. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 73-91.
- Greenhaus, J. Parasuraman, S. Wormley, W.M. (1990). Effects of Race on Organisational Experiences, Job Performances Evaluations, and Career Outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 33(1), 64-86.
- Gürbüz, S. Şahin, F. (2015). Sosyal Bilimlerde Araştırma Yöntemleri, Felsefe-Yöntem-Analiz (2. Baskı). Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
- Güzeller, C.O. Çeliker, N. (2019), Examining The Relationship Between Organisational Commitment and Turnover İntention via A Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 14(1), 102-120.
- Hair, J.F. Black, W.C. Babin, B.J. Anderson, R.E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th Ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Haiyan, K. (2010). Determinants and Outcome of Career Competencies: Perspectives of Hotel Managers in China (Doctoral Dissertation). The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong.
- Hall, D.T. Foster, L.W. (1977). A Psychological Success Cycle and Goal Setting: Goals, Performance and Attitudes. Academy of Management Journal, 20, 282-290.
- Hall, D.T. & Associates. (1986), Career Development in Organisations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
- Hallow, L.L. (1985). Behavior of Some Elliptical Theory Estimators with Non-Normality Data in A Covariance Structures Framework: A Monte Carlo Study (Doctoral Dissertation). University of California, Los Angeles, USA.
- Hamzah. Hubeis, M. Hendri, I. (2020). The Effect of Career Development, Justice Organization and Quality of Work Life to Organizational Commitment and Implications to Organizational Citizenship Behavior of Employees at PT. Perkebunan Nusantara XIII. International Review of Management and Marketing, 10(3), 101-109.
- Hirsh, W. (2007). Career Development in Employing Organisations: Practices and Challenges from a UK Perspective. Guidance for Workforce Development Conference, held by CEDEFOP in Thessaloniki. Retrieved from https://www.employment-studies.co.uk/system/files/resources/files/hrp1.pdf
- Hu, L. Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1-55.
- Huang, Y.C. (2004). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Faculty at Taiwan's Higher Education Institutions (Doctoral Dissertation). University Of Nebraska, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
- Igbaria, M. (1991). Job Performance of MIS Professionals: An Examination of the Antecedents and Consequences. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 8(2), 141-171.
- İlhan, M. Çetin, B. (2014). LISREL ve AMOS Programları Kullanılarak Gerçekleştirilen Yapısal Eşitlik Modeli (YEM) Analizlerine İlişkin Sonuçların Karşılaştırılması. Eğitimde ve Psikolojide Ölçme ve Değerlendirme Dergisi, 5(2), 26-42.
- Jackofsky, E. Slocum, J.W. (1987). A Causal Analysis of the Impact of Job Performance on the Voluntary Turnover Process. Journal of Occupational Behaviour, 8(3), 263-270.
- Joo, B.K. Park, S. (2010). Career Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and Turnover Intention the Effects of Goal Orientation, Organizational Learning Culture and Developmental Feedback. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 31(6), 482-500.
- Joreskog, K.G. (1974). Analysing Psychological Data by Structural Analysis of Covariance Matrices. In Krantz, D.H., Atkinson, R.C., Luce, R.D., and Suppes, P. (Ed.s) Contemporary Developments in Mathematical Psychology, 2, (pp. 1-56), San Francisco: Freeman.
- Judge, T. Cable, D.M. Boudreau, J.W. Bretz, R.D. (1995). An Empirical System Investigation of the Predictors of Executive Career Success. Personnel Psychology, 48, 485-519.
- Kaiser, H.F. (1974). An Index of Factorial Simplicity. Psychometrica, 39(1), 31-36.
- Kang, H.J. Gatling A. Kim, J. (2015). The Impact of Supervisory Support on Organizational Commitment, Career Satisfaction, and Turnover Intention for Hospitality Frontline Employees. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism, 14(1), 68–89
- Kanugo, R.N. (1982). Measurement of Job Involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 341-349.
- KAP (2016, Nisan). İşlem gören şirketler. Erişim adresi http://kap.gov.tr/sirketler/islem-goren-sirketler/tum-sirketler.aspx,
- Karmakar, R. (2020). Redefining Organisational Commitment: Theory and Applications in Today's Organization. ITIHAS The Journal of Indian Management, 10(3), 24-30.
- Kaya, A. (2019). Örgütlerde Kariyer Gelişi Süreci. Ankara: İksad Publications.
- Keith, T.Z. (2015). Multiple Regression and Beyond An Introduction to Multiple Regression and Structural Equation Modeling (2nd Ed.). New York: Rouledge, Taylor and Francis Group.
- King, A.S. (1999). Crescendo Model of Career Motivation and Commitment: Identity, Insight, and Resilience. International Journal of Value-Based Management, 12, 29-49.
- Kline, R.B. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (3rd Ed.). New York and London: The Guilford Press.
- Landau, J. Hammer, T.H. (1986). Clerical Employees' Perceptions of Intraorganizational Career Opportunities. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 385-404.
- Landy, F.J. (1985). Psychology and Work Behavior, (3rd Ed.). Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press.
- Lawson, T. Hepp, R.I. (2001), Measuring the Performance Impact of Human Resource Initiatives. Human Resource Planning, 24(2), 36-44.
- Lee, C.H. Bruvold, N.T. (2003). Creating Value for Employees: Investment in Employee Development. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 981-1000.
- Lee, A. Y.P. Wang, Y.H. Chen, I.H. Yeh, Y.T. (2019). Calling and Organizational Commitment: A Moderated Mediation Model of Career Commitment and PersonOrganization Fit. Journal of Management and Business Research, 36(4), 369-389.
- London, M. Mone, E.M. (1987). Career Management and Survival in the Work Place. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Lounsbury, J. Loveland, J.M. Sundstrom, E.D. Gibson, L.W. Drost, A.W. Hamrick, F.L. (2003). An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction. Journal of Career Assessment, 11, 287-307.
- MacCallum, R. Austin, J.T. (2000). Applications of Structural Equation Modeling In Psychological Research. Annual Review in Psychology, 51, 201-226.
- Malhotra, M. Grover, V. (1998). An Assessment of Survey Research in POM: From Constructs to Theory. Journal of Operations Management, 16(4), 407-425.
- Mathieu, J. Zajac, D.M. (1990). A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Organizational Commitment. Psychological Bulletin, 108, (2), 171-194.
- McDonald, R.P. Ho, M.H.R. (2002). Principles and Practice in Reporting Statistical Equation Analyses. Psychological Methods, 7(1), 64-82.
- Meyer J. Allen, N.J. (1991). A Three-Component Conceptualisation of Organizational Commitment. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1), 61-89.
- Meyer, J. Allen, N.J. Smith, C.A. (1993). Commitment to Organisations and Occupations: Extension and Test of A Three-Component Conceptualisation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.
- Michaels, C. Spector, P.E. (1982). Causes of Employee Turnover: A Test of the Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, and Meglino Model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, 53-59.
- Mobley, W. Griffeth, R. Hand, H.H. Meglino, B.M. (1979). Review and Conceptual Analysis of the Employee Turnover Process. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 493-522.
- Morrow, P. (1993). The Theory and Measurement of Work Commitment. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.
- Mowday, R.T. (1979). The Measurement of Organizational Commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 14, 224–247.
- Mowday, R.T. Porter, L.W. Steers, R.M. (1982). Employee-Organisation Linkages: The Psychology of Commitment, Absenteeism and Turnover. New York, NY: Academic Press.
- Mueller, R.O. (1996). Basic Principles of Structural Equation Modeling: An Introduction to LISREL and EQS. New York: Springer Texts in Statistics Springer.
- Nauta, A. van Vianen, A. van der Heijden, B. van Dam, K. Willemsen, M. (2009). Understanding the Factors That Promote Employability Orientation: The İmpact of Employability Culture, Career Satisfaction, and Role Breadth Self-Efficacy. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 82(2), 233–251.
- Niles, S.G. Harris-Bowlsbey, J.G. (2005). Career Development Interventions in the 21st Century. Upper Saddle River, N. J: Pearson/Merrill Prentice Hall.
- Nouri, H. Parker, R.J. (2013). Career Growth Opportunities and Employee Turnover Intentions in Public Accounting Firms. The British Accounting Review, 45, 138-148.
- Obeidat, B.Y. Al-Suradi, M.M. Masa'deh, R. Tarhini, A. (2016). The Impact of Knowledge Management on Innovation: An Empirical Study on Jordanian Consultancy Firms. Management Research Review, 39(10), 1214-1238.
- O'Reilly, C.A. Chatman, J.A. (1986). Organisational Commitment and Psychological Attachment: The Effects of Compliance, Identification, and Internalization on Prosocial Behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(3), 492-499.
- Orpen, C. (1994). The Effects of Organizational and Individual Career Management on Career Success. International Journal of Manpower, 15(1), 27-37.
- Pachulicz, S. Schmitt, N. Kuljanin, G. (2008). A Model of Career Success: A Longitudinal Study of Emergency Physicians. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 242-253.
- Patton, W. McMahon, M. (2014). Career Development and Systems Theory: Connecting Theory and Practice (3th Ed.). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
- Porter, L. Steers, R.M. (1973). Organisational, Work, and Personal Factors in Employee Turnover and Absenteeism. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 151-176.
- Porter, L. Steers, R.M. Boulian, P.V. (1974). Organisational Commitment, Job Satisfactions and Turnover Among Psychiatric Technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, (5), 603-609.
- Robinson, S. Kraatz, M.S. Rousseau, D.M. (1994). Changing Obligations and the Psychological Contract: A Longitudinal Study. Academy of Management Journal, 37(1), 137-152.
- Sattavorn, S. (2018). The Impact of Career Satisfaction, Commitment and Supervisory Support on Organisational Commitment of Thai Employees: A Study in Japanese Subsidiaries. 5th International Conference on Business and Industrial Research (ICBIR), (344-349), Bangkok, Thailand.
- Schermelleh-Engel, K. Moosbrugger, H. Müler, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
- Schreiber, J.B. Stage, F.K. King, J. Nora, A. Barlow E.A. (2006). Reporting Structural Equation Modeling And Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results: A Review. The Journal of Educational Research, 99(6), 323-337.
- Schumacker R.E. Lomax, R.G. (2010). A Beginer's Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. New Jersey: Taylor and Francis Group.
- Shah, R. Goldstein, S.M. (2006). Use of Structural Equation Modeling in Operations Management Research: Looking Back and Forward. Journal of Operations Management, 24, 148-169.
- SHY-150,10A. 1999, T.C. Ulaştırma Bakanlığı Sivil Havacılık Genel Müdürlüğü Havacılık Talimatı (Yayın tarihi: 22.03.1999).
- SHY-22. 1996, T.C. Ulaştırma Bakanlığı Sivil Havacılık Genel Müdürlüğü Havaalanlari Yer Hizmetleri Yönetmeliği (Resmi Gazete Tarihi: 20.08.1996 Resmi Gazete Sayısı: 22741).
- Simpson, M.J. (2014). The Relationship Between Provision Of Career Development Services and Employee Turnover ( Doctoral Dissertation). Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Illiniois,USA.
- Sittisom, W. (2020). The Impact of Human Resource Practices on Organizational Commitment of the Pharmacy Employees in Thailand. Systematic Review Pharmacy, 11 (3), 97-105.
- Steers, R.M. Mowday, R.T. (1981). Employee Turnover and Post-Decision Accommodation Processes. Research in Organisational Behavior, 3, 235-281.
- Sturges, J. Guest, D. Conway, N. Davey, K.M. (2002). A Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Career Management and Organizational Commitment among Graduates in the First Ten Years at Work. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 731-748.
- Suksod P. Cruthaka, C. (2020). The Effects of Human Resource Practices on Employee Organizational Commitment: Findings from the Pharmaceutical Industry in Thailand. Systematic Review Pharmacy, 11 (3), 77-86.
- Super, D.E. (1957). The Psychology of Careers: An Introduction to Vocational Development. New York: Harper and Row.
- Tabachnick, B.G. Fidel, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th Ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc.
- Taylor, S. (2002). The Employee Retention Handbook. London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
- Udechukwu, I.I. (2006). The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, Intentions to Quit, and Perceived Alternative Employment in the Assessment of Employee Turnover: A Study of Correctional Officers (Doctoral Dissertation). Nova Southeastern University, Florida, USA.
- Ullman, J.B. (2001). Structural Equation Modeling. In Tabachnick, B. G. and Fidell, L.S. (Ed.s) Using Multivariate Statistics (4th Ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
- Vandenberg, R. Nelson, J.B. (1999). Disaggregating The Motives Underlying Turnover Intentions: When Do Intentions Predict Turnover Behavior?. Human Relations, 52, 1313-1336.
- Vondracek, F. Lerner, R.M. Schulenberg, J.E. (1986). Career Development: A Life-Span Developmental Approach. NJ: Hillsdale.
- Weng, Q. Mcelroy, J.C. Morrow, P.C. Liu, R. (2010). The Relationship between Career Growth and Organizational Commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 391-400.
- Weng, Q. McElroy, J.C. (2012). Organisational Career Growth, Affective Occupational Commitment and Turnover Intentions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80, 256-265.
- West, D. (2006). The Impact of Commitment to Supervisor on Organizational Justice, Citizenship, and Intentions to Leave (Doctoral Dissertation). San Diego Alliant International University, California, USA.
- Williams, S. Pitre, R. Zainuba, M. (2002). Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Intentions: Fair Rewards versus Fair Treatment. Journal of Social Psychology, 142, (1), 33-44.
- Williamson, J. Pemberton, A.E. Lounsbury, J.W. (2005). An Investigation of Career and Job Satisfaction in Relation to Personality Traits of Information Professionals. The Library Quarterly: Information, Community, Policy, 75(2), 122-141.
- Yanadori, Y. Kato, T. (2007). Average Employee Tenure, Voluntary Turnover Ratio, and Labour Productivity: Evidence from Japanese Firms. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 18(10), 1841-1857.
- Yousef, D.A. (2003). Validating the Dimensionality of Porter et al.'s Measurement of Organizational Commitment in a Non-Western Culture Setting. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 1067–1079.
- Zincirkıran, M. (2016). Türkiye’de Sivil Havacılık Uygulamaları ve Bu Alanda Yapılan Araştırmalar Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme. International Journal of Social Academia, 1(1), 1-12.