EVALUATION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS, OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES AND POST- HEALING CONDITIONS IN CLOTHING MANUFACTURING SECTOR ACCORDING TO GENDER
- Occupational Health and Safety Chi-Square Analysis Clothing Industry
- İş Sağlığı ve Güvenliği, Ki-Kare Analizi, Giyim Eşyası Sektörü
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1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
The clothing manufacturing sector in our country has developed considerably in recent years. This development in the sector; can be defined as the increase in the number of companies, employment, management systems quality, production quality, domestic market share and foreign market share (Genç, Değer, & Berber, 2010, p. 29-41). This development made the sector an employment center in some settlements (Kaynak, 2016, p. 21-37). The fact that the sector is not too far from residential centers has increased the demand for female employment in this sector due to the comfortable working conditions compared to sectors such as construction, mining, metal and other positive reasons (Arpat, Yeşil, & Öter, 2014, p. 281-318). The female and male employment rates in this sector are very close to each other. Also, female employment in this sector is quite high compared to other lines of activity. Many studies have been conducted that explain occupational health and safety problems by gender. For this purpose, belonging to the occupational accidents occurring types of work-related accidents in Turkey in 2016, the duration of temporary disability, and gender data were compared working environments (Şimşek Kandemir & Şimşek, 2019, p. 239–245). In another study, non-work-related and work-related health problems of working women were examined. In this study, occupational accidents and occupational diseases affecting women were also investigated. Keeping the employees of private records relating to women as a gender are highlighted as a serious problem in Turkey (Özvarış, 2015, p. 37-43). In another study investigating the relationship between work-life quality and motivation level and gender variable; It was concluded that gender does not have a significant effect on the perception of the quality of work-life but has a significant effect on motivation. (Öztürk & Parlak, 2019, p. 687-713). In the study, which investigated the possible problems faced by female employees in libraries due to gender discrimination in the workplace, various solution suggestions were presented. (Yılmaz, 2013, p. 163-171). Similarly; Occupational accidents in mining and quarrying, electricity, gas, steam, water, sewage and construction sectors were examined by gender (Erdugan & Türkan, 2017, p. 462-468). According to the results of the studies on occupational accidents that occur in the production and sales areas in the ready-made clothing and textile sector, it is seen that the number of occupational accidents experienced by men is more than twice that of women. (Ergin & Mergen, 2017, p. 29-38). However, it is seen that these studies generally evaluate all sectors together or sectors with high male employment.
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
Similar studies conducted on sectors where male and female employees are not similar cannot reveal the effect of gender on occupational accidents. In some studies, the reason for the high rate of occupational accidents experienced by men is shown to be the high number of male employees (Ünal, Gök, & Gök, 2009, p. 289-300).
In this study, the rates of employment accidents, loss of life after work accidents, recovery from outpatient or hospitalization, and occupational disease rates of female employees employed in the garment manufacturing sector, which is similar in terms of gender, were compared.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
Unlike other studies in the literature, this study attempts to determine the gender-related relationship between occupational accidents, loss of life after work accidents, outpatient or inpatient recovery, and occupational disease rates. The results of occupational accidents, loss of life after occupational accidents, recovery in an outpatient or hospital stay, and occupational diseases were tried to attract the attention of both the sector managers and the decision-making authority.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Employment data of the Republic of Turkey Social Security Institution for 2018 and occupational accidents and diseases were used in the study.
2.2. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Pearson's Chi-Square Analysis, which is based on the difference between the expected and observed values of the factors examined, was used as a method.
2.3. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
It has been investigated whether there is a significant difference between men and women working in the clothing industry in terms of the rate of having occupational accidents, that is, whether the gender affects the occurrence of occupational accidents.
Whether there is a significant difference between men and women who had an occupational accident in the clothing industry in terms of the rate of death, i.e. whether gender affects the occurrence of loss of life after the accident, has been investigated.
Whether there is a significant difference between men and women who have had an occupational accident in the clothing industry in terms of hospitalization or outpatient recovery, in other words, whether gender affects the recovery process after the accident has been investigated.
It was investigated whether there is a significant difference between men and women working in the clothing industry in terms of the rate of having occupational diseases, that is, whether gender affects occupational disease.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
It was determined that the number of occupational accidents, death rate after a work accident, recovery method after work accident was affected by gender. It has been determined that gender does not affect occupational diseases.
3.2. HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
It was concluded that the occurrence of occupational accidents was negatively affected by gender status.
It has been observed that after the work accident, women lost their lives at a lower rate than expected for them, and men at a higher rate than expected for them. In other words, it was concluded that the occurrence of loss of life after a work accident was affected by gender status.
Men and women are similar in that they are outpatient. However, it was observed that males received hospital inpatient treatment for a higher period than expected for them, while females were treated at a lower rate than expected.
It has been observed that there is no statistically significant difference between men and women working in the clothing industry in terms of the rate of having occupational diseases.
3.3. DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
In most sectors in our country, it is seen that male employees experience a higher rate of work accidents (Ünal, Gök, & Gök, 2009, p. 289-300), (Gökçe, 2008, p. 39). In the study in which all sectors were evaluated together with the SSI occupational accident data for 2016, it was concluded that male employees had a higher rate of occupational accidents than female employees (Şimşek Kandemir & Şimşek, 2019, p. 239–245). In a similar study on occupational accidents in the production and sales areas of 2014 in the ready-made clothing and textile industry, it was concluded that the number of occupational accidents experienced by men is more than twice the number of occupational accidents experienced by women (Ergin & Mergen, 2017, p. 29-38) . On the contrary, in this study, it was observed that women working in the manufacturing of clothing were more likely to have an occupational accident than men.
The rate of recovery without hospital admissions is very similar in men and women. After long-term treatment in hospital, the rate of well-being is higher in men than in women. In the literature studies, it has been observed that the hospitalization period of men is generally more extended than women (Pişkin, ve diğerleri, 2009, p. 597-606).
It has been stated in previous studies that women in the world and our country have worse general health conditions than men and are naturally affected more by the adverse conditions of the workplace (Gönç, 2014, p. 98-116). This situation can also be interpreted as a result of the tendency of women to consult health institutions more frequently than men (O'Brien & Hunt, 2005, p. 503-516). As a result of this study, it was seen that there was no statistically significant difference between men and women in terms of the rate of occupational disease.
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
At the end of the study, suggestions and recommendations were made to the sector and academicians. It is recommended to keep official records on occupational health and safety specific to the sectors in an orderly manner. Considering that employees in the sector may encounter different problems depending on their demographic characteristics, it was recommended to develop survey scales on Safety Culture and Perception suitable for the sector. It is recommended that improvements related to OHS be included in all stages of the process by making continuous data analysis with these correctly obtained data.
4.2. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
In the study, the data on occupational accidents and occupational diseases that occurred in the clothing manufacturing sector in our country in 2018 were used. These data, which are published annually by the SSI, are not event-based but are published in total and depending on a single factor. Because the statistical data are not event-based and incomplete form, no statistical software could be used in the analysis, and all calculations were performed manually. Since the statistical data were published based on a single factor, the effects of other factors could not be examined simultaneously in the analyzes. Only gender-based analyzes could be made.
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