1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
Studies on entrepreneurship and business ethics have been reached, after a comprehensive English and Turkish literature review. It has been determined that there were very few studies that examined the two issues that are related to either entrepreneurship or ethical evaluation.
Studies on entrepreneurship have revealed that individuals are affected by many factors in becoming entrepreneurs (Tong, Tong & Loy, 2011; Özdemir & Karadeniz, 2011; Canedo et al., 2014; Potishuk & Kratzer, 2017).
It can be stated that entrepreneurship and ethics issues have attracted attention recently, although it is very new in management and business administration. However, researchers focused more on the socio-economic aspect of entrepreneurship, and less attention was paid to the ethical dimension of entrepreneurship (Radouche, 2014; Doğan, 2014). Therefore, putting ethical values in the foreground in entrepreneurship increases the originality of the subject.
The primary purpose of the study is to determine the entrepreneurship and ethical value perceptions of business managers at the SME level. In this context, the perceptions of business managers and entrepreneurs were examined by using entrepreneurship and ethical value scales.
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
The increases in the education and awareness levels of the information processing tools of individuals have caused them to take the role of entrepreneurship from time to time. It is normal to expect improvement in business ethics, as seen in every process. However, considering our country, it is seen that the Ahi system was much more advanced in the 13th century. Issues that entrepreneurs evaluate as right or wrong in the entrepreneurship process can often be overshadowed by the economic gain (Tekin, Soba, & İlter, 2018).
Changes and transformations in the structure of the market, customer behaviour and expectations, organizational structure and culture depending on the advances in information, communication and internet technologies undoubtedly affect entrepreneurship and ethical dilemmas related to entrepreneurship.
In this context, the objective of the study is to determine the entrepreneurship and ethical value perceptions of business managers at the SME level. The sample of the study consists of 427 managers and entrepreneurs working in SME-level enterprises in Istanbul. Data on research variables were evaluated based on the Entrepreneurship and the Ethical Value scales.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
As a result of the literature review, many studies on both entrepreneurship and ethical value were found. However, the number of studies examining both subjects together is almost negligible. This work is expected to fill this gap.
The main feature that distinguishes this study from its peers is that the studies on ethics and entrepreneurship are generally carried out in large-scale enterprises. This study shows the difference in the study when SMEs are taken into consideration.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
The literature on the subject of the research was collected, and a face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out. The survey questionnaire form of the study has been designed by using the Ethical Value and the Entrepreneurship Scales together.
Taking into account the questionnaire form applied to achieve the primary purpose of the study, the profile part (demographic characteristics) of the study was interpreted by using the frequency analysis and percentage method. The ethical value and entrepreneurship scales were evaluated by looking at the mean, standard deviation and participation levels. Additionally, factor analysis of both scales was made.
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
The study is a research article based on cross-sectional analysis, using the convenience sampling method, one of the random sampling methods, in a particular field.
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The main problem of the research is to determine the ethical values and entrepreneurship characteristics of SME managers and entrepreneurs. Also, determining the participants and the characteristics of the participants from the perspective of entrepreneurship value scale is another problem.
2.3. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
In the study, the questionnaire form, which is a first-hand data source and original information acquisition tool, was applied face to face. Thus, it was aimed to obtain additional information from the research by observing the reactions of the individuals.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
Taking into account the questionnaire form applied in order to achieve the primary purpose of the study, the profile part (demographic characteristics) of the study was interpreted by using frequency analysis and percentage method. The ethical value and entrepreneurship scales were evaluated by looking at the mean, standard deviation and participation levels. Also, Factor Analysis was applied to both scales and entrepreneurship characteristics of individuals were tried to be determined.
2.5. RESEARCH MODEL
In the study, information was collected by doing desk research. Scales were determined based on the collected information and modelled using cross-section analysis by obtaining data from the field.
2.6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
Considering the primary purpose of the study, the study has been interpreted by taking the level of participation, standard deviation and average values. It was also subjected to factor analysis. In this context, no hypothesis testing was conducted.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
As a result of the factor analysis, it has been observed that the ethical value scale had not changed and was the only factor, and the entrepreneurship evaluation scale was divided into nine (9) factors. Accordingly, entrepreneurs are named as Entrepreneurs Acting Strategically, Remaining Unstable, Taking Risk, Resisting Change, Acting Courageous (Assertive), Focused on Financial Situation, Individual Acting, Focused on Certainty and Acting Decisively.
3.2. HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
It has been determined that all statements under the Strategically Acting Entrepreneur dimension are of high importance and the average value of this factor is also high. On the other hand, under the third dimension, "it is important to delegate the responsibilities to the employees" and "it is beneficial to watch the opportunities", under the sixth dimension; "I do not attempt a new undertaking on an issue I know nothing about " and the bottom of the seventh dimension; which is the statements of "individual work brings more success" also have a high level of attendance.
3.3. DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
Within the scope of the primary purpose of the study, factor analysis was performed, and the results obtained were discussed with a literature review.
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND
4.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE
Expressions such as "I will immediately solve negative, unethical situations or behaviours in the workplace", "I do not allow unethical behaviour even for the benefit of my business" and "I apply ethical principles and rules without compromising in any way" are the most critical situations in the ethical value scale.
As a result of the factor analysis, it was observed that the ethical value scale did not change and was the only factor, and the entrepreneurship evaluation scale was divided into nine (9) factors. These factors have been named as Strategically Acting Entrepreneur, Indecisive Entrepreneur, Risk-Taking Entrepreneur, Entrepreneur Resisting Change, Courageous (Enterprise) Entrepreneur, Financial Situation Focused Entrepreneur, Individual Acting Entrepreneur, Specificity-Focused Entrepreneur and Decisive Moving Entrepreneur.
4.2. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
Businesses can no longer ignore business ethics in markets with intense competition. As a result of unethical practices, there are permanent job failures, especially related to employees and senior managers. This undermines the reputation of SMEs, especially in developing countries, and negatively affects their sustainability. The firm, the firm's managers or entrepreneurs must act ethically and protect their business interests in order to remain competitive. SME owners and employees should also be more sensitive and understand the importance of ethical behaviour in the business world.
4.3. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
The constraints related to the study can be considered in four general terms. The research covers a specific area since the research was conducted on 427 business managers and entrepreneurs only in a small part of Istanbul Lack of financial resources of individual researchers is a financial constraint. Since it covers a specific time, there is a time constraint. Also, the lack of continuity is a constraint in monitoring the change.
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