THE EFFECT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON EMOTIONAL LABOR
- Emotional Intelligence,
- Emotional Labor,
- Structural Equation Modelling,
- Call Center,
- Duygusal Zeka,
- Duygusal Emek,
- Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi,
- Çağrı Merkezi,
How to Cite
1. INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE
Today, especially in developed economies, many different companies use call centers as an essential tool to produce and provide information services to the public and customers. (Russell, 2008). Regardless of whether the customer they serve is reactive or not, due to the recording of the calls of call center employees; they are responsible for both regulating their feelings and trying to control their customers' feelings. From this point of view, call centers can be shown among the workplaces where emotional intelligence skills are needed, and emotional labour is also used intensively. In this study, considering the relationship between emotional intelligence and emotional labour, the relationship between these two variables is examined, and it seeks an answer to the question of the effect of emotional intelligence on emotional labour.
Within the scope of the research, the quantitative research method was adopted, and survey technique was used as a data collection tool. The universe of the research consists of the employees of a call center serving in Duzce. According to June 2019 data, a total of 596 personnel work in the company. There were 450 people in the company at the time the survey was distributed. After the missing data were removed from the questionnaires, the number of questionnaires included in the analysis is 218, and the required number of samples was reached. The emotional intelligence scale developed by Chan (2004; 2006) was used to measure the emotional intelligence levels of the employees. This scale was adapted to Turkish by Aslan and Özata (2008) and consisted of four dimensions: emotional appraisal, positive regulation, empathic sensitivity and positive utilization. The scale developed by Pala and Sürgevil (2016) was used to measure the emotional labour dimensions of the employees. The scale consists of three dimensions: surface acting, suppression of emotions and deep acting.
The goodness of fit values obtained as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis of the emotional intelligence scale are as follows: CMIN/DF = 2.575, GFI= 0,917, CFI= 0,919, TLI= 0,888, RMSEA= 0,085 and SRMR= 0,06. The goodness of fit values obtained as a result of the confirmatory factor analysis of the emotional labor scale is as follows: CMIN/DF = 2.894, GFI= 0,901, CFI= 0,845, TLI= 0,800, RMSEA= 0,093 and SRMR= 0,0730, It can be said that these values are within the acceptable range.
According to the data obtained, the level of explaining the surface acting variable of the positive utilization of emotions variable is statistically significant (R2: 0,032, F:7,220, p: 0,008). The level of explaining the emotional suppression variable of the empathic sensitivity variable is statistically significant (R2: 0,056, F:12,831, p: 0,000). The level of explaining the deep acting of the positive utilization of emotions and favorable regulations of emotions variables are statistically significant (R2: 0,235, F:32,953, p: 0,000).
There was no effect of emotional appraisal variable on surface acting, suppression of emotions and deep acting variables. The fact that the call center employees have notes about what situation they should say in front of them during the interview causes the display rules to be clearly defined. Mostly, what the employees in the call centers of institutions such as insurance and banks, which provide services over legal legislation, should say and behave with more precise rules. Reading ready-made texts may have led employees to only do their jobs without having to understand and evaluate their feelings. However, employees who receive incoming calls are expected to end their calls in just a few minutes (about 3 minutes), and when a call ends, the time for another call to automatically arrive is an average of 5 seconds. Employees may not be able to enter the emotional assessment process, as this causes employees to interact less with the customer and make a quick transition to the other customer.
While the empathic sensitivity variable has a positive effect on the suppression of emotions variable; it has no significant effect on surface and deep acting variables. Even if call center employees feel negative emotions such as anger, unhappiness, and helplessness, they may need to suppress their feelings because the talks are recorded, and team leaders are following them. It can be said that employees with empathic sensitivity successfully suppress their negative feelings in understanding the situation of the customer.
While the positive regulation of emotions variable has a positive effect on deep acting, does not affect surface acting and suppression of emotions was observed. It can be said that employees who can manage their emotions internalize negative emotions by changing the negative emotions without having to act or suppress their emotions.
While the positive utilization of emotions variable has a positive effect on the surface and deep acting variables, the effect of suppression of emotions dimension was not found statistically meaningful. Since the worker is already in a positive mood with high level of positive utilization of emotions, may not need to suppress emotions because it does not feel negative emotions such as anger, helplessness and fear.
Employees in the service sector must demonstrate appropriate emotional labour towards their employers within the organization and outside customers if they are outside the organization. It is believed that if employees feel the support of their managers, they will reduce the pressure of emotional labour within the organization and help them regulate their emotions more positively. Here, it is the organizational support that facilitates the emotional labour usage of the employees, and the managers should provide this. In this context, the mediating effect of variables such as executive support, organizational support, and colleague support can be investigated.
- Adem, Ş. A. T. (2015). Duygusal Zekâ ve Duygusal Emek Düzeylerinin Bazı Demografik Değişkenler Açısından İncelenmesi: Özel Okul Öğretmenleri ile Bir Araştırma. Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, 1(39), 1-20,
- Apalı, A., & Özmen, M. (2018). Muhasebe Meslek Mensuplarında Duygusal Emek ve İşyeri Mutluluğu İlişkisi: Burdur Örneği. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Meslek Yüksekokulu Dergisi, 21(2), 274-283.
- Ayana, Ç. (2016). Duygusal Zekâ ve Duygusal Emeğin Örgütsel Sinizm Algısına Etkisi: Beş Yıldızlı Otel İşletmelerinde Bir Uygulama (Master's thesis, Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü).
- Ashforth, B. E., & Humphrey, R. H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The Influence of Identity. Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.
- Aslan, Ş., & Özata, M. (2008). Duygusal Zekâ ve Tükenmişlik Arasındaki İlişkilerin Araştırılması: Sağlık Çalışanları Örneği. Erciyes Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi, (30), 77-97.
- Aybas, M., & Kosa, G. (2018). Duygusal Emeğin Mesleki Stres ve İşe Adanmışlık Üzerindeki Etkisi: Tur Rehberleri Üzerinde Bir Araştırma. Anemon Muş Alparslan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 6(ICEESS’18), 103-111.
- Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On Model Of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18.
- Bastian, V. A., Burns, N. R., & Nettelbeck, T. (2005). Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, But Not As Well As Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(6), 1135-1145.
- Batt, R. (2000). Strategic Segmentation in Front-Line Services: Matching Customers, Employees and Human Resource Systems. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(3), 540-561.
- Brotheridge, C. M., & Lee, R. T. (2003). Development and Validation of the Emotional Labour Scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76(3), 365-379.
- Brotheridge, C. M. (2006). The Role of Emotional Intelligence and Other Individual Difference Variables in Predicting Emotional Labor Relative to Situational Demands. Psicothema, 18, 139-144.
- Büyüköztürk, Ş., Akgün, Ö. E., Demirel, F., Karadeniz, Ş., & Çakmak, E. K. (2015). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri. Pegem Akademi.
- Carmeli, A. (2003). The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Work Attitudes, Behavior and Outcomes: An Examination among Senior Managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(8), 788-813.
- Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (2004). The Emotionally Intelligent Manager: How to Develop and Use the Four Key Emotional Skills of Leadership. John Wiley & Sons.
- Chan, D. W. (2004). Perceived Emotional Intelligence and Self-Efficacy among Chinese Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(8), 1781-1795.
- Chan, D. W. (2006). Emotional Intelligence and Components of Burnout among Chinese Secondary School Teachers in Hong Kong. Teaching and Teacher Education, 22(8), 1042-1054.
- Cheung, F. Y. L., & Tang, C. S. K. (2009). Quality of Work Life as a Mediator between Emotional Labor and Work Family Interference. Journal of Business and Psychology, 24(3), 245-255.
- Cherniss, C., & Goleman, D. (2001). The Emotionally Intelligence Workplace. How to Select for Measure and Improve Emotional Intelligence in Individuals, Groups and Organizations San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Chu, K. H. L., & Murrmann, S. K. (2006). Development And Validation of the Hospitality Emotional Labor Scale. Tourism Management, 27(6), 1181-1191.
- Chu, K. H., Baker, M. A., & Murrmann, S. K. (2012). When We are Onstage, e smSile: The Effects of Emotional abor on Employee Work Outcomes. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 906-915.
- Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2014). Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Psychology Press.
- Cooper, R. K., & Sawaf, A. (1998). Executive EQ: Emotional Intelligence in Leadership and Organizations. Penguin.
- Çoban, M. (2017). İşgörenlerde Hizmet Verme Yatkınlığının Duygusal Emek Üzerindeki Etkisinde Duygusal Zekânın Rolü. Doktora Tezi. Balıkesir Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Balıkesir.
- Çokluk, O., Şekercioğlu, G., & Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2012). Sosyal Bilimler İçin Çok Değişkenli SPSS ve Lisrel Uygulamaları. Ankara: Pegem Akademi Yayıncılık.
- Durán, A., Extremera, N., & Rey, L. (2004). Self-Reported Emotional Intelligence, Burnout and Engagement among Staff in Services for People with Intellectual Disabilities. Psychological Reports, 95(2), 386-390,
- Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50,
- Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). Cultivated Emotions: Parental Socialization of Positive Emotions and Self-Conscious Emotions. Psychological Inquiry, 9(4), 279-281.
- Goleman, D. (2006) Emotional Intelligence. The 10th Anniversary edn. New York: Bantam Books.
- Güler, H. N., & Marşap, A. (2019). Duygusal Zekâ ve Duygusal Emek Etkileşimi Üzerine Bir Literatür İncelemesi. İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 35(1). 63-81.
- Grandey, A. A. (2000). Emotional Regulation In The Workplace: A New Way To Conceptualize Emotional Labor. Journal Of Occupational Health Psychology, 5(1), 95-110,
- Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., Mattila, A. S., Jansen, K. J., & Sideman, L. A. (2005). Is "Service with a Smile" Enough? Authenticity of Positive Displays During Service Encounters. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 96(1), 38-55.
- Gross, J. J. (1998). The Emerging Field Of Emotion Regulation: An Integrative Review. Review Of General Psychology, 2(3), 271-299.
- Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (1998). Multivariate Data Analysis (Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 207-219). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
- Hein, S. (2009). "Wayne Payne's 1985 Doctoral Paper On Emotions And Emotional Intelligence", http://eqi.org/payne.htm
- Hochschild, A. R. (1983). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60,
- Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: a Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
- Jeon, A. (2016). The Effect of Pre-Flight Attendants' Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Labor, and Emotional Exhaustion on Commitment to Customer Service. Service Business, 10(2), 345-367.
- Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Emotion Regulation in Depression: Relation to Cognitive Inhibition. Cognition and Emotion, 24(2), 281-298.
- Kalaycı, Ş. (2008). SPSS Uygulamalı Çok Değişkenli İstatistik Teknikleri, 3. Baskı, Ankara: Asil Yayın Dağıtım.
- Karagöz, Y. (2016). SPSS 23 ve AMOS 23 Uygulamalı İstatistiksel Analizler. Nobel Akademik Yayıncılık.
- Kerr, R., Garvin, J., Heaton, N., & Boyle, E. (2006). Emotional Intelligence And Leadership Effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 27(4), 265-279.
- Kim, H. J. (2008). Hotel Service Providers' Emotional Labor: The Antecedents and Effects on Burnout. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 27(2), 151-161.
- Kim, T. T., Yoo, J. J. E., Lee, G., & Kim, J. (2012). Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor Acting Strategies among Frontline Hotel Employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
- Kline, R. (2011). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, 3rd Edn Guilford Press. New York.
- Lam, W., & Chen, Z. (2012). When I Put on My Service Mask: Determinants and Outcomes of Emotional Labor Among Hotel Service Providers According to Affective Event Theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 3-11.
- Lee, J. J., & Ok, C. (2012). Reducing Burnout and Enhancing Job Satisfaction: Critical Role of Hotel Employees' Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(4), 1101-1112.
- Little, L. M. (2007). Happy to Help: State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect and Affective Ambivalence as Predictors of Emotional Labor Style and Customer Service Performance (Doctoral Dissertation, Oklahoma State University).
- Lopes, P. N., Salovey, P., Côté, S., Beers, M., & Petty, R. E. (2005). Emotion Regulation Abilities and the Quality of Social Interaction. Emotion, 5(1), 113-118.
- Lopes, P. N., Grewal, D., Kadis, J., Gall, M., & Salovey, P. (2006). Evidence that Emotional Intelligence is Related to Job Performance and Affect and Attitudes at Work. Psicothema, 18, 132-138.
- Mann, S. (1999). Emotion at Work: to What Extent are We Expressing, Suppressing, or Faking it? European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(3), 347-369.
- Mardia, K. V. (1970). Measures of Multivariate Skewness and Kurtosis with Applications. Biometrika, 57(3), 519-530,
- Marsh, H. W. (2012). Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling in Sport and Exercise Psychology. In G. Tenenbaum & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of Sport Psychology, 3, 737-799. New Jersey, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
- Mastracci, S. H., Newman, M. A., & Guy, M. E. (2010). Emotional Labor: Why and How to Teach it. Journal of Public Affairs Education, 16(2), 123-141.
- Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1995). Emotional Intelligence and the Construction and Regulation of Feelings. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 4(3), 197-208.
- Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1997). What Is Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Development And Emotional Intelligence: Educational Implications, 3, 31.
- Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards For An Intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-298.
- Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Target Articles:" Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Findings, And Implications". Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197-215.
- Mercan, N., Demirci, K., Ozler, D. E., & Oyur, E. (2015). İş Yaşamında Yalnızlık, Duygusal Zekâ ve Psikolojik Sermaye Arasındaki İlişkiler Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Manas Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi, 4(5), 197-211.
- Mikolajczak, M., Luminet, O., Leroy, C., & Roy, E. (2007a). Psychometric Properties of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire: Factor Structure, Reliability, Construct, and Incremental Validity in a French-Speaking Population. Journal of Personality Assessment, 88(3), 338-353.
- Mikolajczak, M., Menil, C., & Luminet, O. (2007b). Explaining the Protective Effect of Trait Emotional Intelligence Regarding Occupational Stress: Exploration of Emotional Labour Processes. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(5), 1107-1117.
- Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. (1996). The Dimensions, Antecedents, And Consequences Of Emotional Labor. Academy Of Management Review, 21(4), 986-1010,
- Näring, G., Briët, M., & Brouwers, A. (2006). Beyond Demand–Control: Emotional Labour and ymptoms of Burnout in Teachers. Work & Stress, 20(4), 303-315.
- O'Boyle Jr, E. H., Humphrey, R. H., Pollack, J. M., Hawver, T. H., & Story, P. A. (2011). The Relation Between Emotional Intelligence and Job Performance: A Meta‐Analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 788-818.
- Onay, M. (2011). Çalışanın Sahip Olduğu Duygusal Zekâsının ve Duygusal Emeğinin, Görev Performansı ve Bağlamsal Performans Üzerindeki Etkisi/The Effect of Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Labor on Task Performance and Contextual Performance. Ege Akademik Bakis, 11(4), 587.
- Özkan, G. (2013). Çağrı Merkezlerinde Duygusal Emek ve Örgütsel İletişim. Selçuk İletişim, 7(4), 64-80,
- Pala, T., & Sürgevil, O. (2016). Duygusal Emek Ölçeği: Ölçek Geliştirme, Güvenilirlik ve Geçerlilik Çalışması. Ege Academic Review, 16(4), 773-787.
- Petrides, K. V., Mikolajczak, M., Mavroveli, S., Sanchez-Ruiz, M. J., Furnham, A., & Pérez-González, J. C. (2016). Developments in trait Emotional Intelligence Research. Emotion Review, 8(4), 335-341.
- Psailla, G., & Wagner, R. (2007). E-Commerce and Web Technologies: 8th International Conference, EC-Web 2007, Regensburg, Germany, September 3-7, 2007, Proceedings (Vol. 4655). Springer.
- Raykov, T., & Marcoulides, G. A. (2008). An Introduction to Applied Multivariate Analysis. Routledge.
- Russell, B. (2008). Call centres: A Decade of Research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 10(3), 195-219.
- Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional Intelligence. Imagination, Cognition And Personality, 9(3), 185-211.
- Schutte, N. S., Malouff, J. M., Thorsteinsson, E. B., Bhullar, N., & Rooke, S. E. (2007). A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 921-933.
- Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the Fit of Structural Equation Models: Tests of Significance and Descriptive Goodness-of-Fit Measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74.
- Simon, D., Kriston, L., Loh, A., Spies, C., Scheibler, F., Wills, C., & Härter, M. (2010). Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Recommendations for Improvement of the Autonomy‐Preference‐Index (API). Health Expectations, 13(3), 234-243.
- Singh, T., & Modassir, A. (2007). Relationship of Emotional Intelligence with Transformational Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. IIM Bangalore Research Paper, (262), 3-21.
- Sipahi, B., Yurtkoru, E. S., & Çinko, M. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde SPSS ile Veri Analizi. İstanbul: Beta Yayınları.
- Sliter, M., Chen, Y., Withrow, S., & Sliter, K. (2013). Older and (Emotionally) Smarter? Emotional Intelligence as a Mediator in the Relationship between Age and Emotional Labor Strategies in Service Employees. Experimental Aging Research, 39(4), 466-479.
- Spielberger, C. (2004). Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology. Academic Press.
- Şencan, H. (2005). Sosyal ve Davranışsal Ölçümlerde Güvenilirlik ve Geçerlilik. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık.
- Tabachnick, B. G., Fidell, L. S., & Ullman, J. B. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (Vol. 5). Boston, MA: Pearson.
- Taşlıyan, M., Hırlak, B., & Çiftçi, G. E. (2014). Akademisyenlerin Duygusal Zekâ, İş Tatmini ve Tükenmişlik Düzeyleri Arasındaki İlişki. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 6(3), 63-80,
- Taylor, P., & Bain, P. (1999). 'An Assembly Line in the Head': Work and Employee Relations in the Call Centre. Industrial Relations Journal, 30(2), 101-117.
- Tunç, P., Gitmez, A., & Krespi Boothby, M. R. (2014). Yoğun Bakım ve Yataklı Servis Hemşirelerinde Duygusal Emek Stratejilerinin Empatik Eğilim Açısından İncelenmesi. Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi, 15(1), 45-54.
- Wang, X., Wang, G., & Hou, W. C. (2016). Effects of Emotional Labor and Adaptive Selling Behavior on Job Performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an International Journal, 44(5), 801-814.
- Wiegand, D. M. (2007). Exploring The Role Of Emotional Intelligence In Behavior-Based Safety Coaching. Journal Of Safety Research, 38(4), 391-398.
- Wood, S., Holman, D., & Stride, C. (2006). Human Resource Management and Performance in UK Call Centres. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 44(1), 99-124.
- Wróbel, M. (2013). Can Empathy Lead to Emotional Exhaustion in Teachers? The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 26(4), 581-592.
- Van Jaarsveld, D., & Poster, W. R. (2013). Call Centers: Emotional Labor Over the Phone. In Emotional Labor in the 21st Century (pp. 173-194). Routledge.
- Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal Bilimlerde Faktör Analizi ve Geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizlerinin Kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46, 74-85.
- Yin, H. B., Lee, J. C. K., & Zhang, Z. H. (2013). Exploring The Relationship Among Teachers' Emotional Intelligence, Emotional Labor Strategies And Teaching Satisfaction. Teaching And Teacher Education, 35, 137-145.
- Zapf, D. (2002). Emotion Work and Psychological Well-Being: A eview of the Literature and Some Conceptual Considerations. Human Resource Management Review, 12(2), 237-268.