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BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT STUDIES:
AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Published: 2020-09-25

THE MEDIATING ROLE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR

Asisst. Prof. Dr., National Defense University
Asisst. Prof. Dr., Eskişehir Osmangazi University
Transformational Leadership, Emotional Intelligence, Taransactional Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Abstract

1. LITERATURE
In organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB); emotional intelligence and leadership style are proven to be adequate premises, and these variables are also interrelated (Çakar ve Arbak, 2003; Taşkıran ve Köse, 2016). In this study, the relationship between the emotional intelligence of the manager and the organizational citizenship behaviour of the employees as a whole was examined. In this scope, it was evaluated that clarifying the role of the leadership style applied as an intermediate variable would contribute to the literature and be useful for the practitioners.
Emotional intelligence (E.Q.), which emerged as a fundamental concept both in business life and social life with modern life; reveals that the decision-making process should be evaluated with the E.Q. dimension as well as the logical dimension in ensuring organizational success (Arslan vd., 2013). Robledillo ve Albiol (2014), briefly defines E.Q. as the ability of people to know, express and manage their emotions and Schutte et al. (1998) E.Q.; defines it as the effect and meaning of emotions as the ability to use emotions by accepting them as the source of social relations in human life. In the previous studies within the scope of the relationship between the E.Q. of the manager and the OCB of the employees; A positive relationship was found between the D.Z. Level of the manager and the civil virtue, conscience and altruism dimensions of her subordinates' OCB by Korkmaz ve Arpacı (2009). In research conducted on 115 managers working in a private company, it was found that there was a positive relationship between the D.Z. Level of the managers and the ÖVD of the employees by Antony (2013). In the research conducted on 392 people in the banking sector, assistant manager, branch manager and above positions, D.Z. has been found to have a significant relationship with the transactional and transformational leadership styles by Taşkıran ve Köse (2016).
Aid and cooperation behaviours that contribute to the organization's efficient and effective work for the organization, which are not officially defined within the job descriptions and are not included in the official reward system are defined as OCB (Organ, 1988; Aslan, 2008; Şenturan, 2014). OCB, which does not take part in formal role definitions and benefits the organization that goes beyond job definitions, has similar concepts in the literature; Good soldier syndrome is also referred to as pro-social behaviour, extra-role behaviour and corporate volunteering (Organ, 1988; Graham, 1991; Moorman, 1991; Motowidlo, 2000; Borman, 2004).
Transactional leadership (TAL), as a business-oriented leadership style, motivates its followers in line with goals and rewards performance; transformational leadership (TRL), as a human-oriented leadership style, enables motivation and employees to identify with organizational goals beyond interaction, so that they perform better than expected (Yolaç, 2011). In the study of 204 teachers, it was revealed that there is a positive and meaningful relationship between the manager's TRL and the TAL behaviours and the OCB of the employees by Oğuz (2011).
In this study, in line with the leadership style and the relationality of OCB; It was aimed to determine the mediating role of the manager's leadership style in the relationship of the manager's emotional intelligence with the teachers' OCB. In previous studies, the mediating effect of the manager's D.Z. on the effect of the leadership style of the manager on the ÖVD of the employees was investigated, the results; In the study conducted by Modassir and Singh (2008), it was found that there was no such mediation effect, and in the study conducted by Irshad and Hashmi (2014), D.Z. had a mediation effect in the relationship between DL and ÖVD. In this study, unlike previous studies, the mediating role of the manager's leadership style in the effect of the D.Z. of the manager on the ÖVD of the employees was investigated. In this context, it is evaluated that the research will contribute to the literature.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
Does the manager's leadership style have an intermediating role in the relationship between the ÖVD and the D.Z. of their managers? The hypotheses determined in line with the research question are presented below.
H1: Transformational leadership has an intermediating role in the relationship between the emotional intelligence of the manager and the organizational citizenship behaviour and dimensions of the employee.
H2: In the relation of the emotional intelligence of the manager with the organizational citizenship behaviour and dimensions of the employee, the conditional reward dimension of the transactional leadership has an intermediating role.
The method used in the research; It is a quantitative study conducted with a survey method that covers both fields descriptive and exploratory field research. The research was carried out on 470 teachers working in 11 schools on the Anatolian side of Istanbul. In the implementation of the survey, the validity and reliability of the researchers were tested, and the OCB scale of Basım ve Şeşen (2006), the leadership style scale of Yurtkoru (2001) and Tatar et al. (2011) 's emotional intelligence scales were rearranged after pilot implementation; The questionnaire form consisting of 18 items, 29 items of E.Q., 20 items of leadership style and 20 items of leadership style, was determined by the factor analysis made after the pilot implementation. 5-point Likert scale was used in the evaluations.
The research model created to investigate the mediating role of the manager's leadership style about the dimensions of the manager's E.Q. with the dimensions of the OCB displayed by the employees is presented below.

 

 

 

 


In the analysis of the data, SPSS 15.0 and AMOS 6.0 programs were used, and hierarchical regression analysis was performed to determine the role of the mediating variable in the relationship between the dependent variable and independent variables. In the test of the mediating role, the model determined by Baron and Kenny (1986) was used.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
H1: Transformational leadership has an intermediating role in the relationship between the emotional intelligence of the manager and the organizational citizenship behaviour and dimensions of the employee.
According to the results of hierarchical regression analysis;
E.Q. affects OCB both on TRL and directly. It has been determined that TRL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCB. E.Q. affects OCBA over TRL. It has been determined that TRL is a fully intermediary variable between E.Q. and OCBA. E.Q. affects OCBCON both through TRL and directly. It has been determined that TRL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCBCON. E.Q. affects OCBC both on TRL and directly. It has been determined that TRL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCBC. E.Q. affects OCBS both on TRL and directly. It has been determined that TRL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCBS. E.Q. affects OCBCV both on TRL and directly. It has been determined that TRL has a partial mediating effect between E.Q. and OCBCV.
H2: In the relation of the emotional intelligence of the manager with the organizational citizenship behaviour and dimensions of the employee, the conditional reward dimension of the transactional leadership has an intermediating role.
According to the results of hierarchical regression analysis;
E.Q. affects OCB both via TAL and directly. It has been determined that TAL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCB. E.Q. affects OCBA over TAL. It has been determined that TAL is a fully intermediary variable between E.Q. and OCBA. E.Q. affects OCBCON both via TAL and directly. It has been determined that TAL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCBCON. E.Q. affects OCBC both via TAL and directly. It has been determined that TAL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCBC. D.Z. affects OCBS both directly over TAL. It has been determined that TAL has a partial intermediating effect between E.Q. and OCBS. Since there is no significant relationship between TAL and OCBCV, it has been determined that TAL's mediating effect cannot be mentioned in the relationship between E.Q. and OCBCV.

4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
In this study, it was aimed to determine the mediating role of leadership in the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour. Within the scope of the research, data related to 295 teachers who answered the questionnaire among the teachers working at eleven schools in the Istanbul-Anatolian side of a private school were used. As a result of the analysis; it has been determined that there is a full mediation role of both transformational leadership and transactional leadership conditional rewarding behaviour on the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour. Transformational leadership has been found to have a partial mediating role in the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour (general), conscience, courtesy, gentleness, and civic virtue dimensions. On the relationship between emotional intelligence and organizational citizenship behaviour (general), conscientiousness, courtesy, gentleness dimensions, the conditional rewarding behaviour of the transactional leadership has been shown to have a partial mediating role, and there is no mediating role on the relationship between the civil virtue dimension. In the relationship between E.Q. and OCB and the mediation role of TRL and TAL in this relationship, it was determined that the independent variables' explanatory power of OCB was fragile (values between R2 =, 027 and,225). The limitations of the study are the limitations of the capacity of the research to be carried out on teachers working in the schools of a particular educational institution and the dimensions of the scales to measure.
When the research findings are evaluated; E.Q. capabilities such as the manager's correct assessment of his or her employees' emotions, having an optimistic mood, empathy, organizing and using his emotions effectively, will contribute to the employees displaying more OCB; It is seen that TRL and TAL behaviours will increase this contribution. From the perspective of practitioners; It is evaluated that the manager knows that the basic behaviours of TRL and TAL will increase the effect of E.Q. on the performance of the employees' OCB and reflecting this to their behaviours can enable the employees to display more OCB.
In the next research, within the context of the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership style, which are the predecessors of ÖVD; It is thought that it would be beneficial to examine whether the manager's leadership style has an intermediating role in the relationship between the emotional intelligence the employee has and the employee's OCB, and to investigate why the relationship between the employee's OCB and dimensions and the manager's TAL is weaker than its relationship with the TRL.

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How to Cite

KURUŞCU, M., & YENİLMEZ, Özlem. (2020). THE MEDIATING ROLE OF LEADERSHIP STYLE IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(3), 3183-3220. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v8i3.1544