The Validity and Reliability of the scales used in research are essential factors that enable the research to yield beneficial results. For this reason, it is useful to understand how the Reliability and Validity of the scales are measured correctly by researchers. The primary purpose of this study is to provide information on how the researchers test the Validity and Reliability of the scales used in their empirical studies and to provide resources for future research. For this purpose, the concepts of Validity and Reliability are introduced, and detailed explanations have been provided regarding the main methods used in the evaluation of Validity and Reliability with examples taken from the literature. It is considered that this study, which is a review, will attract the attention of researchers.
- Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63(1), 1-18.
- Aksay, B., & Ünal, A. Y. (2016). Yapısal Eşitlik Modellemesi Kapsamında Formatif Ve Reflektif Ölçüm. Çağ Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 13(2), 1-21.
- Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological testing. Prentice Hall/Pearson Education.
- Ayre, C., & Scally, A. J. (2014). Critical values for Lawshe's content validity ratio: Revisiting the original methods of calculation. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 47(1), 79-86.
- Bollen, K. A. (1989). The consequences of measurement error. Structural Equations with Latent Variables, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 151-178. https://doi.org/10.1177/1038416217724516.
- Bowling, A. (2014). Research methods in health: Investigating health and health services. McGraw-hill education (UK).
- Campbell, D. T., & Fiske, D. W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56(2), 81.
- Carifio, J., & Perla, R. J. (2007). Ten common misunderstandings, misconceptions, persistent myths and urban legends about Likert scales and Likert response formats and their antidotes. Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 106-116.
- Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334.
- Cronbach, L. J., & Meehl, P. E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52(4), 281.
- Drost, E. A. (2011). Validity and Reliability in social science research. Education Research and Perspectives, 38(1), 105.
- Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.
- Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis 5th ed. New Jersey, NJ: Printice-Hall.
- Henson R.K., & Roberts J. K. (2006) Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis in Published Research: Common Errors and Some Comment on Improved Practice. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 66(3).
- Janssen, O. (2000). Job demands, perceptions of effort‐reward fairness and innovative work behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73(3), 287-302.
- Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Pucik, V., & Welbourne, T. M. (1999). Managerial coping with organizational change: A dispositional perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(1), 107-122.
- Kaplan, R. M., & Saccuzzo, D. P. (2017). Psychological testing: Principles, applications, and issues. Nelson Education. USA.
- Kline, P. (1993). Psychometric theory and method. The handbook of Psychological Testing, 5-170.
- Kuder, G.F., & Richardson, M. W. (1937). The theory of the estimation of test reliability. Psychometrika, 2(3), 151-160.
- Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
- Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60(3), 541-572.
- Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D. L. (2003). PDQ statistics (Vol. 1). PMPH-USA.
- Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory McGraw-Hill Book Company. INC New York.
- Oluwatayo, J. A. (2012). Validity and reliability issues in educational research. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 2(2), 391-400.
- Rubio, D. M., Berg-Weger, M., Tebb, S. S., Lee, E. S., & Rauch, S. (2003). Objectifying content validity: Conducting a content validity study in social work research. Social Work Research, 27(2), 94-104.
- Ruzafa‐Martínez, M., López‐Iborra, L., & Madrigal‐Torres, M. (2011). Attitude towards Evidence‐Based Nursing Questionnaire: development and psychometric testing in Spanish community nurses. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 17(4), 664-670.
- Swisher L.L., Beckstead J.W., Bebeau M.J. (2004) Factor analysis as a tool for survey analysis using a professional role orientation inventory as an example. Physical Therapy. 84(9):784-99.
- Werts, C. E., Rock, D. R., Linn, R. L., & Jöreskog, K. G. (1978). A general method of estimating the Reliability of a composite. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 38(4), 933-938.
- Whiston, S. C. (2012). Principles and applications of assessment in counseling. Cengage Learning. USA.
- Yeşilyurt, S., & Çapraz, C. (2018). Ölçek geliştirme çalışmalarında kullanılan kapsam geçerliği için bir yol haritası. Erzincan Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 20(1), 251-264.