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BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT STUDIES:
AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Published: 2020-09-25

CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PERCEPTIONS ACCORDING TO THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSINESS MANAGERS: EXAMPLE OF UŞAK ORGANIZED INDUSTRY ZONE

Asisst. Prof. Dr., Pamukkale University
Assoc. Prof. Dr., Uşak University
Lect., Isparta University of Applied Sciences
Corporate Social Responsibility, Organized Industrial Zone, Business Managers, Uşak

Abstract

1. LITERATURE
The concept of Corporate Social Responsibility has many uses in the literature. Some examples of use preferred by researchers are "Corporate Social Performance", "Corporate Citizenship", "Corporate Social Investment", "Corporate Social Responsibility" and "Corporate Responsibility". In this study, the concept of "Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)" was preferred, as used by Carroll (1999: 269). Although Carroll extensively studied it in four dimensions, this concept was first introduced by Bowen (1953) (Wartick and Cochran, 1985: 759).
Although the concept of CSR covers a wide area, there is no clear consensus among researchers on the definition of this concept. This concept originated from the handling of wrong corporate behaviour regarding social problems or matters that do not directly affect the fundamentals of the business. Examples of these problems include environmental, labour and human rights violations (internal or external problems) arising from outside the company, and abuses, especially in developing countries. Although initially the CSR concept was seen as just voluntary actions taken by businesses to solve these problems, later businesses developed many codes, guidelines and initiatives related to this concept to prove that they are taking on social responsibility activities (Adeyeye, 2012: 7).
1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
In the literature on the concept of CSR, definitions made by Beal (2014), Chandler (2015), and Rutherford and Scullion (2017) have been reached. According to Beal (2014: 5), market participants should consider the effects of their actions on outputs that are at the collective or system level. CSR is the regulation of behaviour with ethical and practical obligations in order to align these outputs with social expectations. CSR, according to Chandler (2015: 41); business activities (provided that they include their responsibilities to various constituent groups) are continued to include all stakeholders. Rutherford and Scullion (2017: 3), according to CSR, the concept of representing a work area of contemporary business practices only covered political, ethical, economic, and cultural concepts represent. Examining these definitions related to CSR concept; market, growth, philanthropy, compliance with laws, environmental management, protection of labour rights and other positive expectations should include the role of businesses in providing some "good" to society (Hirschland, 2006: 5).
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
Although researches have been conducted in many CSR-related sectors, research on CSR perceptions of business managers, especially at Organized Industry Zone, is minimal. Therefore, the most critical aspect of this study is the determination of the opinions of business managers operating in Organized Industry Zone of Uşak province.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
In this study, it is assumed that the views of private sector managers on CSR perception will be determined and guide both businesses and academics who are thinking of researching this topic.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
As the research method, the quantitative research method is adopted. As a type of research, descriptive has been selected. Survey technique was preferred from data collection techniques. As a sampling method, the easy sampling method was determined (Tanrıöğen, 2012: 176; Aziz, 2014: 58-59).
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
In this study, it is aimed to determine the perceptions of business managers in Uşak OSB related to CSR activities. For this purpose, CSR perceptions of managers, the importance ranking of CSR dimensions, the level of implementation of CSR activities of enterprises, and whether there is a significant difference between the demographics of managers and CSR dimensions were examined.
2.3. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
Five hundred survey forms for the application were distributed by surveyors, and 287 of the 320 survey forms obtained were deemed appropriate for evaluation. Thirty-three reasons why the survey was not considered appropriate are that only one face of the survey was filled out, and the same answer was given to all the questions in the survey.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
After the information and data obtained from the surveys have been collected, they have been reviewed and coded by the purpose and nature of the research. The SPSS 22.0 program was used to analyze the data obtained. In this program, appropriate analyses (frequency, mean, standard deviation, Mann Whitney U and ANOVA) were performed, and the results were evaluated.
2.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The central alternative hypothesis proposed for the research is "HA: There is a significant difference between the demographics of managers (gender, education level, age, working time, total working time and position) and the dimensions of CSR (economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility)."
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
Demographic characteristics of the surveyed managers were examined; (i) almost all of the business managers were male, (ii) the level of education was usually either high-school or undergraduate level, (iii) managers are in the 18-67 age range and the average age is approximately 37, (iv) the total in a sector when working time is compared with the working time in their current enterprises; it is seen that the turnover rate is high in the private sector and (v) almost half of the managers are partners or owners of the business they have joined.
The scope of the research examined the general characteristics of the enterprises examined were; (i) the enterprises generally operate on the textile sector, (ii) the number of employees of the enterprises is between 5-450 people, (iii) the operating periods of the enterprises are between 1-52 years, (iv) the enterprises continue their business with a foreign partner or expand their business, (v) more than half of the enterprises engaged in export activities and (vi) the enterprises do not prefer foreign employees much.
3.2. HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
Some of the hypotheses developed for demographic characteristics were accepted when the results of all sub-hypotheses were examined (HA1; HA2; HA4). Some of the hypotheses developed for demographic characteristics were rejected when the results of all sub-hypotheses were examined (HA3; HA5; HA6). As a result, the central HA hypothesis has been partially accepted.
3.3. DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
There are parallels between some of the results obtained in Maignan's (2001) study and the results obtained in this study. There are differences between some of the results obtained in Maignan's (2001) study and the results obtained in this study. The parallel with Maignan's work is that American consumers care most about the dimension of economic responsibility. The difference is that French and German consumers care most about the dimension of legal and ethical responsibility. Cingöz and Akdogan (2012) 's study of the CSR activities of the enterprises obtained as a result of the results of this study shows parallels. Also, the fact that business managers care most about activities related to legal responsibility differs from the result obtained in this study. Ersöz (2014; 2016a) investigated whether there was a significant difference between executive and employee perceptions and CSR dimensions and found differences in other dimensions of responsibility other than the dimension of economic responsibility. In this study, it was examined whether there was a significant difference between the demographics of managers and the dimensions of CSR. Although significant differences were found in all CSR dimensions, no significant differences were found in all demographics. The results obtained in this study about managers (the ranking of importance in managers' perception of CSR dimensions) are parallel to the results obtained in Ersöz (2014; 2016a) 's study. In another study, Ersoz (2016b) examined the website of businesses in terms of philanthropic responsibility. He concluded that businesses participate in social responsibility projects in the field of education and health. In this study, it is noted that the expressions with the lowest average are expressions of philanthropic responsibility.
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE
According to the CSR concept; businesses should fulfil their economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility activities, respectively. The order of importance of CSR dimensions according to business managers is parallel to the pyramid structure of the CSR concept. According to business managers, the dimension with the highest average is the dimension of economic responsibility, and the dimension with the lowest average is philanthropic responsibility.
The managers were asked questions about the realization of some CSR activities in their businesses. It was observed that only one of these questions (supporting the training of employees) did not answer the 1/10 of the managers and the other questions were left unanswered at a minimal rate. Considering the rate of companies carrying out CSR activities; it is seen that they remain below %70 in only four subjects. These activities are; the presence of female managers, the prohibition of smoking in the business, donation and sponsorship activities. "Finding female executives and prohibiting smoking in the company" activities are within the ethical responsibility dimension, and "donation and sponsorship" activities are included in philanthropic responsibility activities.
Significant differences were found between some managers' demographic characteristics (gender, level of education, and working time) and the CSR dimensions. A significant difference wasn't found between the gender of managers and the economic, legal and philanthropic dimensions of responsibility. A significant difference was found only between the genders of managers and the dimension of ethical responsibility. A significant difference wasn't found between the educational levels of managers and the dimensions of legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. A significant difference was found only between the education level of the managers and the dimension of economic responsibility. A significant difference has been found between the working time and the dimensions of legal and philanthropic responsibility. It was determined that there was no significant difference between working time and the dimensions of economic and ethical responsibility. The significant difference wasn't found between the age, total working time and positions of managers and the CSR dimension.
4.2. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
Some recommendations have been presented to business managers in light of the findings. As the level of education of managers increases, the importance they attach to the dimension of economic responsibility also increases. No differences were found in terms of the level of education of managers and other CSR dimensions. A significant difference has been found between the working time and the dimensions of legal responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. Especially considering that no significant difference in total working time has been found, it is believed that a business should maintain a certain level of business turnover speed. It is assumed that the more an employee works in the current business and in the sector in which that business operates, the more benefit it will be to the business in terms of legal responsibility and philanthropic responsibility. No significant differences were found between the age, total working time and position of managers and their perception of CSR dimensions. According to the findings and results obtained, it would be more appropriate to choose a person who has been working in the current business for a certain period instead of choosing a manager who is experienced from outside and is at the senior management level.
4.3. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
The limitations set for this study are; (i) the sample of the study is that business managers are operating in Uşak's Organized Industry Zone, (ii) date of July 1-26, 2019 for the implementation of surveys and (iii) those who work as managers in businesses in Uşak's Organized Industry Zone and want to participate in the study were included in the study.

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How to Cite

BAYHAN, M., SOBA, M., & ŞİMŞEK, A. (2020). CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PERCEPTIONS ACCORDING TO THE DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF BUSINESS MANAGERS: EXAMPLE OF UŞAK ORGANIZED INDUSTRY ZONE. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(3), 3021-3051. https://doi.org/10.15295/bmij.v8i3.1531