Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2020-06-25


Asisst. Prof., Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University
Asisst. Prof., Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University
Prof.Dr., Karamanoğlu Mehmetbey University
Information and Communication Technologies Promotional Activities Branding Advantage Export Performance


The integration of ICT into promotion activities in international markets where competition is intense may offer great advantages to the enterprises on the basis of brand and cost. From this point of view the objective of the current study is to empirically examine (i) the impact of the use of ICT in promotional activities on brand advantage and cost advantage and (ii) the impact of brand advantage and cost advantage on export performance. The data that were collected from 188 exporter companies from Turkey with the help of a structured questionnaire were statistically analyzed by using the SmartPLS 3.0 software. The results reveal that promotional activities using ICT have a strong and positive effect on brand advantage and low cost advantage, while there is no significant direct effect on export performance. The results also reveal that brand advantage and low cost advantage significantly affect export performance.


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Aaby, N. E., & Slater, S. F. (1989). Management Influences on Export Performance: A Review of the Empirical Literature 1978-88. International Marketing Review, 6(4).
  2. Alarcón-del-Amo, M.-C., Criado, A., & Josep, R. (2017). Examining the impact of managerial involvement with social media on exporting firm performance. International Business Review (Vol. 27).
  3. Alarcón-del-Amo, M. del C., Rialp-Criado, A., & Rialp-Criado, J. (2018). Examining the impact of managerial involvement with social media on exporting firm performance. International Business Review.
  4. Argan, M. (2002). Spor Sponsorluğu Yönetim Sürecine Kavramsal Yaklaşım, 7. Uluslararası Spor Bilimleri Kongresi, 40, 27–29.
  5. Aslam, B., & Karjaluoto, H. (2017). Digital advertising around paid spaces, E-advertising industry’s revenue engine: A review and research agenda. Telematics and Informatics, 34(8), 1650–1662.
  6. Azar, G., & Ciabuschi, F. (2017). Organizational innovation, technological innovation, and export performance: The effects of innovation radicalness and extensiveness. International Business Review, 26(2), 324–336.
  7. Balabanis, G. I., & Katsikea, E. S. (2003). Being an entrepreneurial exporter: Does it pay? International Business Review, 12(2), 233–252.
  8. Bell, J., & Loane, S. (2010). ‘New-wave’global firms: web 2.0 and SME internationalisation. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(3–4), 213–229.
  9. Bhatt, G., & Grover, V. (2005). Types of Information Technology Capabilities and Their Role in Competitive Advantage: An Empirical Study. J. of Management Information Systems (Vol. 22).
  10. Bianchi, C., & Mathews, S. (2016). Internet marketing and export market growth in Chile. Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 426–434.
  11. Billon, M., Marco, R., & Lera-Lopez, F. (2017). Innovation and ICT use in the EU: An analysis of regional drivers. Empirical Economics, 53(3), 1083–1108.
  12. Byoungho, J., & Jeong, C. H. (2018). Examining the role of international entrepreneurial orientation, domestic market competition, and technological and marketing capabilities on SME’s export performance. Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, 33(5), 585–598.
  13. Cavusgil, S. T., & Zou, S. (1994). Marketing strategy-performance relationship: an investigation of the empirical link in export market ventures. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 1–21.
  14. Chen, J., Sousa, C. M. P., & He, X. (2016). The determinants of export performance: a review of the literature 2006-2014. International Marketing Review, 33(5), 626–670.
  15. Chung, K. C., Fleming, P., & Fleming, E. (2013). The impact of information and communication technology on international trade in fruit and vegetables in APEC. Asian-Pacific Economic Literature, 27(2), 117–130.
  16. Dehghani, M., & Tumer, M. (2015). A research on effectiveness of Facebook advertising on enhancing purchase intention of consumers. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, 597–600.
  17. Eid, R., & Trueman, M. (2002). The Internet: New international marketing issues. Management Research News, 25(12), 54–67.
  18. Ellis-Chadwick, F., & Doherty, N. F. (2012). Web advertising: The role of e-mail marketing. Journal of Business Research.
  19. Erdoğan, T., & Bilir, H. (2002). Bilgi İletişim Teknolojileri: Gelişmeler, Yansımalar ve Piyasaların Yeniden Düzenlenmesi. Rekabet Dergisi, 11, 47–75.
  20. Faizan, A., Mostafa, R. S., Marko, S., M., R. C., & Kisang, R. (2018). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in hospitality research. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(1), 514–538.
  21. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: Algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 382–388.
  22. Gilmore, J. H., & Pine, J. (2000). Markets of One: Creating Customer-unique Value through Mass Customization (Индивидуализированные рынки: Создание уникальной потребительской ценности посредством массового ориентирования на потребителя).
  23. Gregory, G. D., Ngo, L. V., & Karavdic, M. (2019). Developing e-commerce marketing capabilities and efficiencies for enhanced performance in business-to-business export ventures. Industrial Marketing Management, 78, 146–157.
  24. Grimes, S. (2000). Rural areas in the information society: Diminishing distance or increasing learning capacity? Journal of Rural Studies, 16(1), 13–21.
  25. Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis Seventh Edition. In Pearson Prentice Hall.
  26. Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2014). A Primer on Partial Least Squares StructuralEquation Modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage, Thousand Oaks. Washington, DC.
  27. Hair Jr, J. F., Matthews, L. M., Matthews, R. L., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). PLS-SEM or CB-SEM: updated guidelines on which method to use. International Journal of Multivariate Data Analysis, 1(2), 107–123.
  28. Hamill, J., & Gregory, K. (1997). Internet marketing in the internationalisation of UK SMEs. Journal of Marketing Management.
  29. Hao, S., & Song, M. (2016). Technology-driven strategy and firm performance: Are strategic capabilities missing links? Journal of Business Research, 69(2), 751–759.
  30. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.
  31. Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (1997). A new marketing paradigm for electronic commerce. Information Society, 13(1), 43–54.
  32. Karavdic, M., & Gregory, G. (2005). Integrating e-commerce into existing export marketing theories: A contingency model. Marketing Theory, 5(1), 75–104.
  33. Kneller, R., & Timmis, J. (2016). ICT and Exporting: The Effects of Broadband on the Extensive Margin of Business Service Exports. In Review of International Economics.
  34. Kotler, P., & Armstrong, G. (2013). Principles of Marketing (16th Global Edition). Harlow: Pearson.
  35. Kotler, P., & Keller, K. L. (2016). Marketing Management, 15th Edition. Pearson Education Limited.
  36. Leeflang, P. S. H., Verhoef, P. C., Dahlström, P., & Freundt, T. (2014). Challenges and solutions for marketing in a digital era. European Management Journal, 32(1), 1–12.
  37. Ling-Yee, L., & Ogunmokun, G. O. (2001). Effect of export financing resources and supply-chain skills on export competitive advantages: Implications for superior export performance. Journal of World Business, 36(3), 260–279.
  38. Ling, C. X., & Li, C. (1998). Data mining for direct marketing: Problems and solutions. In Kdd (Vol. 98, pp. 73–79).
  39. Lu, V. N., & Julian, C. C. (2007). The internet and export marketing performance: The empirical link in export market ventures. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics.
  40. Manzoor, E. D. A. (2016). Using Social Media Marketing for Competitive Advantage (pp. 201–218).
  41. Mastilo, Z. (2017). Impact of Digital Growth in Modern Business. Business and Management Studies, 3(4), 59–63.
  42. Mehta, R., & Sivadas, E. (1995). Direct marketing on the internet: An empirical assessment of consumer attitudes. Journal of Direct Marketing.
  43. Moen, Ø., Madsen, T. K., & Aspelund, A. (2008). The importance of the internet in international business-to-business markets. International Marketing Review, 25(5), 487–503.
  44. Monteiro, A. P., Soares, A. M., & Rua, O. L. (2017). Linking intangible resources and export performance: The role of entrepreneurial orientation and dynamic capabilities. Baltic Journal of Management, 12(3), 329–347.
  45. Morgan-Thomas, A., & Bridgewater, S. (2004). Internet and exporting: Determinants of success in virtual export channels. International Marketing Review.
  46. Morgan, N. A., Vorhies, D. W., & Schlegelmilch, B. B. (2006). Resource-performance relationships in industrial export ventures: The role of resource inimitability and substitutability. Industrial Marketing Management.
  47. Mucuk, İ. (2012). Pazarlama ilkeleri. Türkmen kitabevi.
  48. Navarro-García, A., Arenas-Gaitán, J., Rondán-Cataluña, F. J., & Rey-Moreno, M. (2016). Global model of export performance: Moderator role of export department. Journal of Business Research, 69(5), 1880–1886.
  49. Nolan, R. L. (1994). Note on Estimating the Value of the" IT Asset" Part II. Harvard Business School Note, 195–197.
  50. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric Theory: 2d Ed. McGraw-Hill.
  51. Oliveira, J. S., Cadogan, J. W., & Souchon, A. (2012). Level of analysis in export performance research. International Marketing Review, 29(1), 114–127.
  52. Pełech-Pilichowski, T., Mach-Król, M., & Olszak Editors, C. M. (n.d.). Studies in Computational Intelligence 658 Advances in Business ICT: New Ideas from Ongoing Research.
  53. Piercy, Nigel, F., Kaleka, A., & Katsikeas, C. S. (1998). Source of Competitive Advantage in High Performance Companies. Journal of World Business, 33(4), 378–393.
  54. Prasad, V. K., Ramamurthy, K., & Naidu, G. M. (2001). The influence of internet – marketing integration on marketing competencies. Journal of International Marketing, 9(4), 82–110.
  55. Quelch, J. A., & Klein, L. R. (1996). The Internet and international marketing. MIT Sloan Management Review, 37(3), 60.
  56. Radivojević, V., & Stanišić, T. (2015). The Use of the Internet in Direct Marketing: Advantages, Results and Limitations, (January 2015), 603–605.
  57. Shoham, A. (1998). Export performance: a conceptualization and empirical assessment. Journal of International Marketing, 6(3), 59–81.
  58. Sinkovics, N., Sinkovics, R. R., & Jean, R. J. B. (2013). The internet as an alternative path to internationalization? International Marketing Review.
  59. Smith, W. R., & Vardiabasis, D. (2010). Using social media as a competitive advantage: the case of small businesses. Problems and Perspectives in Management, 8(4), 193–197.
  60. Spyropoulou, S., Skarmeas, D., & Katsikeas, C. S. (2011). An examination of branding advantage in export ventures. European Journal of Marketing.
  61. Strauss, J., El-Ansary, A., & Frost, R. (2006). E-marketing 4th edition. Thurow, S.(2009). Don’t Forget SEO For Navigational Searches. Third Door Media.
  62. Strizhakova, Y., Coulter, R. A., & Price, L. L. (2008). Branded Products as a Passport to Global Citizenship: Perspectives from Developed and Developing Countries. Journal of International Marketing, 16(4), 57–85.
  64. Tiago, M. T. P. M. B., & Veríssimo, J. M. C. (2014). Digital marketing and social media: Why bother? Business Horizons, 57(6), 703–708.
  65. Tran, T. P. (2017). Personalized ads on Facebook: An effective marketing tool for online marketers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 39(March), 230–242.
  66. UNESCO. (2006). Using ICT to develop literacy. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from
  67. Von Faber, E., & Behnsen, W. (2012). Secure ICT Service Provisioning for Cloud, Mobile and Beyond. Secure ICT Service Provisioning for Cloud, Mobile and Beyond.
  68. Vural, B. A., & Sabuncuoğlu, A. (2008). Bilgi iletişim teknolojileri ve ütopyan bakış açısı. Selçuk Üniversitesi İletişim Fakültesi Akademik Dergisi, 5(3), 5–19.
  69. Wang, Z., & Kim, H. G. (2017). Can Social Media Marketing Improve Customer Relationship Capabilities and Firm Performance? Dynamic Capability Perspective. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 39, 15–26.
  70. Weill, P., Subramani, M., & Broadbent, M. (2002). Building IT Infrastructure for Strategic Agility. MIT Sloan Management Review (Vol. 44).
  71. Weill, P., & Vitale, M. (2001). Place to space: Migrating to eBusiness Models. Harvard Business Press.
  72. Wells, W., Burnett, J., & Moriarty, S. (1998). Advertising Principles and Practices. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
  73. Werbach, K. (2000). Syndication--the emerging model for business in the Internet era. Harvard Business Review.
  74. Yang, D.-J., & Lee, C. W. (2016). In-Store Promotional Mix and the Effects on Female Consumer Buying Decisions in Relation to Cosmetic Products. International Journal of Management, Economics and Social Sciences, 5(2), 35–56.
  75. Zhou, Q., Gao, P., & Chimhowu, A. (2019). ICTs in the transformation of rural enterprises in China: A multi-layer perspective. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 145(June 2018), 12–23.
  76. Zou, S., Fang, E., & Zhao, S. (2003). The Effect of Export Marketing Capabilities on Export Performance: An Investigation of Chinese Exporters. Journal of International Marketing.

How to Cite

ARSLANDERE, M., TUNCER, İlhami, & ADA, S. (2020). THE IMPACT OF ICT USE IN PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES ON EXPORT PERFORMANCE: AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(2), 2384-2413.