THE PERCEPTION OF MOBBING IN ORGANIZATIONS AND THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT RELATION: AN APPLICATION IN PRIVATE SERVICE INSTITUTIONS IN ISTANBUL
In recent years, the concepts of mobbing and organizational commitment have gained popularity in the literature of organizational psychology and organizational behavior. Therefore, mobbing and organizational commitment are the factors that will be determining whether the employee, as a result of the correspondence of personal and organizational goals, will want to continue working in the organization, and accordingly show an effort. These factors reveal the necessity of examining the human element and behavior in order to realize information and technology oriented works in the field of organization and management.
1.1. Subject Of Study
The subject of this study is the examination of the relationships between the mobbing phenomenon experienced in organizations, and organizational commitment and emotional, continuity, normative commitment types. In addition to this, determining the level of effect on how mobbing (physical and psychological pressure, exclusion, intimidation etc.) applied to employees within the organization affects their organizational commitment constitutes the framework of the study.
1.2. Aim And Significance Of Study
The purpose of the study is to determine the effect, strength, and direction of the relationship between employees' mobbing perception and organizational commitment dimensions. Organizations' survival depends on their human resources. Therefore, it is very important to eliminate the mobbing of employees, to provide a healthy work environment and to increase their organizational commitment in order to ensure organizational harmony. Ensuring this harmony constitutes the importance of the study.
1.3. Study's Contribution To The Literature
It is extremely important for organizations to achieve organizational harmony in order to survive. In this regard, mobbing and organizational commitment variables, which are extremely important for organizational compliance, are discussed in the study. Accordingly, it is expected for mobbing and organizational commitment perceptions of employees working in different departments and different sectors in Istanbul, where work intensity is high, to be measured and compared, and to contribute to the literature based on the consistency of the results obtained.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. Type of the Study
The study is based on an applied analysis.
2.2. Design of Study
Descriptive research model was used in the study.
2.3. Problem of Study
The main problem of this study is to investigate the effect and strength of the relationship between perception of mobbing, and organizational commitment in employees of organizations. In addition, it has been attempted to determine in what way and direction there is a relationship between the employees' exposure to mobbing, and in which dimensions of organizational commitment.
2.4. Data Collection Technique
Within the scope of the research, in order to determine the relationship between mobbing and organizational commitment, the survey method was used to collect the data obtained from the sample. The universe of the research consists of those working in private service institutions serving in Istanbul. The reason for choosing the universe of the study is that the continuation, job success and contribution of an employee who is selected and recruited by spending so much effort, time and cost is of considerable importance today. In this context, the survey method was preferred in order to obtain data. The fact that there are approximately 2,500,000 private service employees in different sectors in the European side of Istanbul offers a wide range of opportunities to determine the universe and sample of the research. For this reason, the employees of private service institutions in Istanbul were selected as the universe of the study. This work, project numbered 2019/021, was supported by the Kırıkkale University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit. Within the scope of the project, 400 people working in the said service institutions were reached through the easy sampling method by conducting surveys through the company “Istanbul PRP Research and Consultancy Services”. In this context, the sample size of the research was determined as 400.
2.5. Quantitative / Qualitative Analysis Used
In this study, quantitative analysis was applied. Accordingly, the data obtained within the framework of the research were used for the purpose of the research, with the support of professional experts, as, frequency, t test, Anova, Pearson Correlation, Regression statistical analyzes, and were interpreted in relation to the subject.
2.6. Hypotheses of the Study
H1: There is a relationship between the demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status, educational status, working hours, professional titles) of the participants included in the research, and their views on mobbing and organizational commitment.
H2: There is a relationship between the participants' exposure to mobbing and organizational commitment.
H3: There is a relationship between the participants' exposure to mobbing and emotional commitment.
H4: There is a relationship between the participants' exposure to mobbing and continuity commitment.
H5: There is a relationship between the participants' exposure to mobbing and normative commitment.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Findings as a Result of Analysis
According to the results of the analysis, it is concluded that employees' perceptions of mobbing and organizational commitment do not differ depending on their demographic characteristics. Correlation analysis was used to test whether there was a significant relationship between mobbing and organizational commitment. According to the results of the Pearson correlation coefficients obtained from the correlation analysis, it was determined that there was a statistically significant and negative relationship between mobbing and organizational commitment (r = -0,161). According to this, a statistically significant difference was found between mobbing and the organizational commitment scale at the level of 0.05 significance. When the sub-dimensions of the organizational commitment scale are analyzed, the relationship between normative commitment and emotional commitment sub-dimensions, and mobbing is again found to be statistically significant and negative. When evaluated in terms of the strength of the relationship, it can be said that there is a stronger relationship between mobbing and normative commitment sub-dimension (r = -0,164) compared to emotional commitment sub-dimension (r = -0,149). According to this; between mobbing and emotional commitment; a statistically significant difference was found between mobbing and normative commitment at the level of 0.05 significance. However, the relationship between continuity commitment sub-dimension and mobbing, at the level of 0.05 significance, is not statistically significant.
Regression analysis was carried out to determine the direction of the relationship between these variables. In the regression analysis, the negative behavior scale was considered as the dependent variable. The independent variables are the organizational commitment scale and three sub-dimensions of this scale. Since the relationships between normative commitment and continuity commitment (r = -0.380), normative commitment and emotional commitment (r = -0.586) and continuity commitment and emotional commitment (r = -0.214) are statistically significant, these three independent variables in regression analysis were not included in the model. Instead, each variable was handled separately and three different models were created. In addition, another model is the model established by considering the organizational commitment scale as an independent variable. Therefore, four different regression models were established in total. Of the four models established, it is seen that only the model where consistency commitment is considered as an independent variable is insignificant (F-value = 0.628; p-value = 0.429). Other installed models were determined significant. When the coefficient estimates for the models are analyzed, it is possible to say that the variable that has the most impact on the negative behavior scale is the generally handled organizational commitment scale (β = 0.094). This is followed by normative commitment (0.081) and emotional commitment (0.061), respectively.
3.2. Hypothesis Test Results
It was determined that none of the demographic features discussed demonstrated a significant relationship between mobbing and organizational commitment and H1 hypothesis was rejected. According to other analysis results obtained from the study, it is concluded that there is a significant inverse relationship between mobbing and organizational commitment. According to this, an inversely significant relationship was found between the employees' mobbing perceptions and their normative and emotional commitment. On the other hand, it was concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between continuity commitment and perception of mobbing. As a result; H2, H3, and H5 hypotheses were accepted, whereas H4 hypothesis was rejected.
3.3. Discussing the Findings with the Literature
When the research results are compared with the studies in the literature, it was observed in a study by Tengilimoğlu and Mansur (2009), that there was a significant difference between mobbing exposure and emotional commitment, and between mobbing exposure and normative commitment. On the other hand, there was no significant difference between continuity commitment and exposure to mobbing. It is seen that the results of the study conducted by Tengilimoğlu and Mansur (2009) are similar to the results obtained from this study.
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND RESTRICTION
4.1. Results of the Study
In this study, it was concluded that employees' perceptions of mobbing and organizational commitment do not differ according to their demographic characteristics. It is concluded that there is a significant inverse relationship between mobbing and organizational commitment. According to this, an inversely significant relationship was found between the employees' mobbing perceptions and their normative and emotional commitment. According to the coefficient estimates for the models, it is possible to say that the variable that has the most impact on the mobbing perception is the scale of organizational commitment that is handled in general. This is followed by normative and emotional commitment respectively. On the other hand, it was concluded that there was no statistically significant difference between continuity commitment and perception of mobbing.
4.2. Suggestions Based on Results
As a result of all these analyzes conducted in this study, we can say that practices should be made to improve working conditions by taking organizational measures to prevent mobbing in organizations and to increase the organizational commitment of employees. However, at an organizational level, it is important to build a safe, open to communication, transparent, solution-oriented and fair organizational climate. At the stage of creating the organizational climate in question, the managers should develop effective strategic policies by acting meticulously and fairly, especially in the issues of wages, working conditions, promotion and authority, which cause mobbing. In this context, a healthy organizational structure where communication channels are open at a hierarchical level, communication is fully ensured, conflicts arising from the role distribution are minimized, and employees can work in a comfortable, convenient and peaceful environment should be designed.
4.3. Limitations of the Study
In the study, mobbing perceptions and organizational commitment of employees working in different departments and different sectors were measured. However, that the perceptions of employees working in different cities or different regions were not compared can be considered as a constraint. Likewise, the mobbing perceptions and the lack of organizational commitment of employees working in a single sector or employed in a single department not being measured can be seen as the limitations of the study.