THE EFFECT OF CRONYISM ON JOB SATISFACTION: INTERMEDIATE ROLE OF ORGANIZATIONAL JUSTICE
1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
The subject of the research is to determine whether or not organizational justice perception has an intermediary role in the effect of cronyism, which is one of the unwanted behaviors in organizations, on the job satisfaction of the employees.
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
The main purpose of the research is to determine the effect of employees' perception of cronyism on job satisfaction and to determine whether there is a mediating role in organizational justice perception in this relationship.
In the literature review conducted during the research, although there have been various studies in both national and international literature to investigate the relationships between cronyism and job satisfaction; (Araslı ve Tümer, 2008: 1247; Chandler, 2012: 110; Sadozai ve diğerleri, 2012: 765; Karataş, 2013: 87; Diken ve diğerleri, 2014: 209; Erdem ve Karataş, 2015: 67; Nadeem ve diğerleri, 2015: 228), cronyism and organizational justice (Büte, 2011b: 150; Karacağoğlu ve Yörük, 2012: 45; Polat ve Kazak, 2014: 72; Barut, 2015: 384), job satisfaction and organizational justice (Yürür, 2005: 109; Söyük, 2007: 108; Dinç ve Ceylan, 2008: 14; Yavuz, 2010: 55; Meydan, 2010: 201; Keklik ve Coşkun Us, 2013: 158; Yıldız, 2014: 207; Tekingündüz ve diğerleri, 2014: 63), any study that deals with cronyism, job satisfaction and organizational justice has not been demonstrated. This research is important in terms of addressing the relationship between cronyism, job satisfaction and organizational justice.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
Businesses that want to ensure that their employees are satisfied with their jobs should primarily create a fair organizational environment. The prerequisite of providing a fair environment is not to keep any employees apart from other employees, act differently and favor them because of any feature. Although these three concepts, namely job satisfaction, organizational justice and cronyism, are closely related to the organizational behavior of the employees, the lack of a study that deals with the relationship between these three concepts in the literature causes a significant deficiency. It is thought that the research conducted in order to overcome this deficiency will contribute.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
A practical research has been conducted for this study.
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The research problems created by considering the research model are: a) Does cronyism have any effect on job satisfaction? b) Does cronyism have any effect on organizational justice? c) Does organizational justice have any impact on job satisfaction? d) Does organizational justice have a mediating effect on the impact of cronyism on job satisfaction?
2.3. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
The survey method, one of the most common methods used to collect primary data, was used in the study, as in many studies in the social sciences. The universe of the research is the employees working in the public sector in Amasya province and its districts and the business employees with fifty or more employees in the private sector. For a research population of 25678 employees, a sample of 418 people was conducted.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
This study is a quantitative study. Quantitative analysis techniques were used for the data obtained from the sample of the study. Among these, frequency analysis for demographic data, factor analysis for variables and correlation analysis for the research model, linear regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis were used.
2.5. RESEARCH MODEL
2.6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The research has four basic hypotheses. These are:
H1: Employees' perception of cronyism affects job satisfaction.
H2: Employees' perception of cronyism affects the perception of organizational justice.
H3: Employees' perception of organizational justice affects job satisfaction.
H4: Organizational justice perception has a mediating effect on the effect of employees' perception of cronyism on job satisfaction.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
According to the findings obtained as a result of the correlation analysis, it is seen that there is a negative relationship between cronyism, job satisfaction and sub-dimensions. Again, a negative relationship was found between cronyism and organizational justice and its sub-dimensions. There is a positive and significant relationship between job satisfaction and its sub-dimensions and organizational justice and its sub-dimensions. Added to this, according to the latest hierarchical regression analysis, it was concluded that the perception of organizational justice has a partial mediator variable effect between cronyism and job satisfaction.
3.2. HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
According to the data obtained from the regression analysis, all hypotheses created were accepted.
3.3. DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
According to the findings obtained from the research, it is seen that there is a negative relationship between cronyism, job satisfaction and sub-dimensions. Some of the studies that support this finding in the literature are as follows; Araslı and Tümer (2008: 1247), Büte (2011a: 402), Chandler (2012: 101), Karataş (2013: 87), Diken and others (2014: 209), Karaköse (2014: 248), Erdem and Karataş ( 2015: 67), Barut (2015: 390). However, there are two studies in the literature that do not support these findings, these are; Sadozai et al (2012: 765) and Nadeem et al (2015: 228). In these studies, it was revealed that there is a positive relationship between cronyism and job satisfaction. These two studies were done in Pakistan. They argued that the reason for such an outcome was that favoritism was favored and approved by the Pakistani community, and that the culture factor and culture and conditions in small and underdeveloped countries would encourage people to accept cronyism.
Again, a negative relationship was found between cronyism and organizational justice and its sub-dimensions. Some of the studies supporting this result in the literature are as follows; Karacakoğlu and Yörük, (2012: 45), Erdem et al. (2013: 57), Pearce (2015: 43).
There is a significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and its sub-dimensions and organizational justice and its sub-dimensions. There are studies supporting this result in the literature, these are; Judge and Colquitt (2004: 395), Meydan (2010: 201), Taşçıoğlu, (2010: 50-51), Tekingündüz et al. (2014: 63), Yıldız (2014: 207).
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE
According to the results of the study that emerged in line with the analyzes; it has been determined that cronyism has a negative relationship with job satisfaction and its sub-dimensions. In other words, job satisfaction decreases as cronyism increases.
In addition, it has been determined that cronyism has a negative relationship with organizational justice and its sub-dimensions, which means that the perception of organizational justice decreases as cronyism increases.
In the study, there was a positive relationship between organizational justice and its sub-dimensions and job satisfaction and sub-dimensions, that is, as the perception of organizational justice increases, job satisfaction also increases.
Finally, it has been determined that organizational justice has a partial mediating effect in the relationship of cronyism with job satisfaction, which means that it is in the mediator variables other than organizational justice that affects the relationship between cronyism and job satisfaction.
4.2. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
In the research, only cronyism, which is accepted as a type of nepotism, has been handled, other types of nepotism (such as nepotism, patronage, and townsmanship) can be discussed later. Instead of job satisfaction and organizational justice variables, it can be handled in different variables (such as organizational citizenship, motivation). The sample of the research can be expanded and applied across a geographical region or country.
4.3. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
The sample covers only Amasya province and its districts. The difficulties of survey application in general. Limited number of participants reached through the survey. Particularly because of the content of the concept of cronyism (nepotism), participants thought that they could not answer objectively about the expressions in the questionnaire.