Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer
Published: 2020-06-25


Law. Dr., Adana Science and Technology University
Boreout Depression Anxiety Stress Chambers Of Commerce


The study aims to determine the effects of boreout on employee’s depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Furthermore, it is aimed to reveal employee’s job meaningless, employee’s job boring, stress factors, ways of coping and being happy under stress via interview. This study was conducted with 186 participants recruited from the Chambers of Commerce in Turkey. Mixed-Method Evaluation Design has been adopted in the study based on the social exchange theory, which includes quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. Findings revealed a positive association between boreout, depression, stress, and anxiety. The coding findings confirmed the three-dimensional structure of the boreout scale those were the problems arising from managers, employees and working conditions. Furthermore, stress was perceived by the employees as three main effects in terms of keeping away, accepting and struggling.                             


Download data is not yet available.


  1. Bailey, C., & Madden, A. (2016). What makes work meaningful-or meaningless? MIT Sloan management review, 57(4), 1-17.
  2. Bakker, A. B., M. van Veldhoven, & D. Xanthopoulou. (2010). Beyond the demand-control model. Thriving on high job demands and resources. Journal of Personnel Psychology. 9 (1), 3–16.
  3. Bentler P M & Bonett D G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of lit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychol. Bull., 88, 588-606.
  4. Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
  5. Brown, T. A. (2015). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Publications.
  6. Buchanan, D., & Huczynski, A. (2004). Organisational Behaviour: An Introductory Text, 5th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd.
  7. Burke, R.J. (1988). Sources of managerial and professional stress in large organisations. in Cooper, C.L. and Payne, R. (Eds), Causes, Coping and Consequences of Stress at Work, (pp. 77-112) John Wiley & Sons, Chicester.
  8. Byrne, B.M. (1998). Structural Equation Modeling with LISREL, PRELIS and SIMPLIS: Basic Concepts, Applications and Programming. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  9. Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with amos: basic concepts, applications, and programming (Second Edition). Taylor & Francis.
  10. Cangialosi, N., Odoardi, C., & Battistelli, A. (2020). Learning Climate and Innovative Work Behavior, the Mediating Role of the Learning Potential of the Workplace. Vocations and Learning, 1-18.
  11. Clercq, D.D., Haq, I.U., & Azeem, M.U. (2018). Self-efficacy to spur job performance: Roles of job-related anxiety and perceived workplace incivility. Management Decision, 56(4), 891-907.
  12. Converse, J. M., & Presser, S. (1986), Survey questions: Handcrafting the standardized questionnaire,
  13. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
  14. Carlopio, J., Andrewartha, G., & Armstrong, H. (1997). Developing Management Skills in Australia. South Melbourne: Longman.
  15. Davies, P. (2000). Contributions from Qualitative Research. In H. T. Davies, M. N. Sandra, & P. Smith (Eds). What works? Evidence-based Policy and Practice in Public Services (pp. 291- 316), Bristol, UK: Policy Press.
  16. DeFrank, R.S. & Ivancevich, J.M. (1998). Stress on the job: an executive update. Academy of Management Executive, 12(3), 55-66.
  17. Diamantopoulos, A. & Siguaw, J.A. (2000). Introducing LISREL. London: Sage Publications.
  18. Dutton, J. E., L. M. Roberts, & J. Bednar. (2010). Pathways for positive identity construction at work: Four types of positive identity and the building of social resources. Academy of Management Review, 35 (2), 265–93.
  19. Embriaco N, Papazian L, Kentish-Barnes N, Pochard F, & Azoulay E. (2007). Burnout syndrome among critical care healthcare workers. Current Opinion in Critical Care, 13(5), 482-488.
  20. Evans-Lacko, S.E., Koeser, L., Knapp, M., Longhitano, C., Zohar, J., & Kuhn, K. (2016). Evaluating the economic impact of screening and treatment for depression in the workplace. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 26, 1004–1013.
  21. Fairbrother, K., & Warn, J. (2003). Workplace dimensions, stress and job satisfaction. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 18(1), 8-21.
  22. Fan, X., Thompson, B., & Wang, L. (1999). Effects of Sample Size, Estimation Methods, and Model Specification on Structural Equation Modeling Fit Indexes. Structural Equation Modeling, 6 (1), 56-83.
  23. Field, A.(2005). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, 2nd edn, London: SAGE.
  24. Fisher, C. D. (1998). Effects of external and internal interruptions on boredom at work: Two studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19 (5), 503–22.
  25. Fornell, C. & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 39-50.
  26. Foster, K., Roche, M., Giandinoto, J. A., & Furness, T. (2020). Workplace stressors, psychological well‐being, resilience, and caring behaviours of mental health nurses: A descriptive correlational study. International journal of mental health nursing, 29(1), 56-68.
  27. Greene, J. C., Caracelli, V. J., Graham, W. F. (1989). Toward a conceptual framework for mixedmethod evaluation designs. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 11(3), 255–274.
  28. Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2016). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.
  29. Halpern, M., Khan, Z., & Rentz, A. (2001), The interaction of depression and smoking on workplace productivity, in Irina Farquhar, Kent Summers, Alan Sorkin (ed.) Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation (Research in Human Capital and Development, Volume 14), (pp.377 – 387). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  30. Hu, L. & Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria Versus New Alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55.
  31. Gefen, D., Straub, D., & Boudreau, M.-C. (2000). Structural Equation Modeling and Regression: Guidelines for Research Practice. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 4(1), 2-77.
  32. Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. (2008). Structural equation modelling: guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6(1), 53-60.
  33. Jones, G., Moore, K. A., Porter, J., & Morgan, D. (2018). Why does the psychological contract matter? Implications for leadership practice, workplace stress and anxiety. In Stress and anxiety: Theories and realities (pp. 33-44). Logos Verlag.
  34. Karadal, H., Abubakar, A.M., & Erdem, A.T. (2018), Boreout, Kariyer Uyumluluğu ve Aile-İş Zenginleştirme Etkileşimi: Selçuk Üniversitesi Örneği. Sosyal Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 18(35).
  35. Kline, R.B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (2nd Edition ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.
  36. Kline R. B. (2016). Principles and Practices of Structural Equation Modeling (4th Edn). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
  37. LeFevre, M., Matheny, J., & Kolt, G.S. (2003). Eustress, distress and interpretation in occupational stress. Journal of Management Psychology, 18(7), 726-44.
  38. Leiter, MP, Bakker, AB, & Maslach C. (2014). Burnout at work: a psychological perspective. New York: Psychol Press.
  39. Leong, C.S., Furnham, A., Cary, L., & Cooper, C.L. (1996). The moderating effect of organizational commitment on the occupational stress outcome relationship. Human Relations, 49(10), 1345-1363.
  40. Løkke, A.K. & Madsen, H. (2014). Public sector managers and work stress. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 7(2), 105-120.
  41. Lovibond, P. F. & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories.
  42. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33 (3), 335–343.
  43. MacKenzie, S.B. & Podsakoff, P.M. (2012). Common method bias in marketing: Causes, mechanisms, and procedural remedies. Journal of Retailing, 88, 4, 542–555.
  44. Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis (2nd ed.). London: Sage.
  45. Miles, J. & Shevlin, M. (2007). A time and a place for incremental fit indices. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 869-874.
  46. Moeller, J., Ivcevic, Z., White, AE., Menges, J.I., & Brackett, MA. (2018). Highly engaged but burned out: intra-individual profiles in the US workforce. Career Development International, 23 (1), 86-105.
  47. Naumann, E. (1993). Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment among expatriate managers. Group & Organization Management, 18(2), 153-187.
  48. Nelson, D.L. & Burke, R.J. (2000). Women executives: health, stress, and success. Academy of Management Executive, 14(2), 107-121.
  49. Nunnally, J. C. (1976). Psychometric theory (2nd ed). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  50. Olive, K. & Cangemi, J. (2015). Workplace bullies: why they are successful and what can be done about it?. Organization Development Journal, 33(2), 19-31.
  51. Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Leech, N. L. (2004). Enhancing the Interpretation of “Significant” Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research. The Qualitative Report, 9(4), 770-792.
  52. Özsungur, F. (2020). The Effects of Mobbing in the Workplace on Service Innovation Performance: The Mediating Role of Boreout. İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi- Journal of Business Research-Turk, 12(1), 28-42.
  53. Roberts, A.M., Gallagher, K.C., Daro, A.M., Iruka, I.U. & Sarver, S.L. (2019). Workforce well-being: Personal and workplace contributions to early educators' depression across settings. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 61, 4–12.
  54. Sacchi, M.D. (1998). A bootstrap procedure for high-resolution velocity analysis. Geophysics, 63(5), 1716-1725.
  55. Schumacker, R.E. & Lomax, R.G. (1996). A Beginner’s Guide to Structural Equation Modeling. Mahwah. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
  56. Santiago, J. M. C., Vega, A. V., & Alvarado, R. A. V. (2020). The Predictors of Job Burnout on Job Boredom in a sample of workers in the banking industry of Puerto Ricol/Predictores del agotamiento laboral por aburrimiento laboral en una muestra de trabajadores de la industria bancaria de Puerto Rico/Previsores de burnout profissional no tedio no emprego em uma amostra de trabalhadores do setor bancario de Porto Rico. Informes Psicologicos, 20(1), 167-182.
  57. Schnell, T. (2010). Existential indifference: Another quality of meaning in life. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 50 (3), 351–73.
  58. Siegrist, J. (1998). Adverse health effects of effort-reward imbalance at work; theory, empirical support and implications for prevention. In Cooper, C.L. (Ed.), Theories of Organizational Stress, (pp. 153-69). Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  59. Sparks, K. & Cooper, C.L. (1999). Occupational differences in the work-strain relationship: towards the use of situation specific models. Journal of Occupational and Organisational Psychology, 72, 219-29.
  60. Spradley, J. P. (1980). Participant Observation. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, Inc.
  61. Spreitzer, G.M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38 (5), 1442-1465.
  62. Statt, D.A. (2004), Psychology and the World of Work. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
  63. Stevens, J.P. (1992). Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Sciences (2 nd edition). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  64. Steiger, J.H. (2007). Understanding the limitations of global fit assessment in structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(5), 893-898.
  65. Stock, R. M. (2015). Is boreout a threat to frontline employees' innovative work behavior? Journal of
  66. Product Innovation Management, 32(4), 574–592. DOI: 10.1111/jpim.12239.
  67. Stock, RM. (2016). Understanding the relationship between frontline employee boreout and customer orientation. Journal of Business Research, 69, 4259-4268.
  68. Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. New Delhi: SAGE Publications.
  69. Sullivan, S.E. & Bhagat, R.S. (1992). Organizational stress, job satisfaction and job performance: where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 18(2), 353-374.
  70. Swindle, R., Kroenke K., & Braun, L. (2001). Energy and improved workplace productivity in depression, in Irina Farquhar, Kent Summers, Alan Sorkin (ed.) Investing in Health: The Social and Economic Benefits of Health Care Innovation (Research in Human Capital and Development, Volume 14), (pp.323 – 341). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  71. Tabachnick, B.G. & Fidell, L.S. (2007). Using Multivariate Statistics (5th edition). New York: Allyn and Bacon.
  72. Tett, R.P. & Meyer, J.P. (1993). Job satisfaction, organizational commitment, turnover intention, and turnover: path analyses based on meta-analytic findings. Personnel Psychology, 46, 259-293.
  73. Tonsing, K.N. (2014). Psychometric properties and validation of Nepali version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21). Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 8, 63–66.
  74. Wheaton, B., Muthen, B., Alwin, D. F. & Summers, G. F. (1977). Assessing Reliability and Stability in Panel Models. In David R. Heise (Ed.). Sociological Methodology Jossey-Bass (pp. 84-136). San Francisco.
  75. Williams, L.J. & Hazer, J.T. (1986). Antecedents and consequences of satisfaction and commitment in turnover models: a reanalysis using latent variable structural equation methods. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71(2), 219-31.
  76. Wolfe, M.T. & Patel, P.C. (2019). Labor of love? The influence of work-conditions among self-employed and work stress. Journal of Business Venturing Insights, 11, Article e00118.
  77. Yao, Y.H., Fan, Y.Y., Guo, Y.X., & Li, Y. (2014). Leadership, work stress and employee behavior. Chinese Management Studies, 8(1), 109-126.
  78. Yıldırım, A., Boysan, M., & Kefeli, M.C. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). British Journal of Guidance & Counselling.
  79. Zagenczyk, T. J., Purvis, R. L., Cruz, K. S., Thoroughgood, C. N., & Sawyer, K. B. (2020). Context and social exchange: perceived ethical climate strengthens the relationships between perceived organizational support and organizational identification and commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 1-20.
  80. Zellars, K.L. (2007). Social Anxiety: An Overlooked Variable in the Organizational Stress Literature, in Pamela L. Perrewé, Daniel C. Ganster (ed.) Exploring the Work and Non-Work Interface (Research in Occupational Stress and Well-being, Volume 6), (pp.1 – 33). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

How to Cite

ÖZSUNGUR, F. (2020). THE EFFECTS OF BOREOUT ON STRESS, DEPRESSION, AND ANXIETY IN THE WORKPLACE. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 8(2), 1391-1423.