MODELLING OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE MATERIAL DEPRIVATION STATUS OF INDIVIDUALS IN TURKEY
1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
Deprivation is defined as the state of being deprived of something. Deprivation can be defined as the situation in which an individual, family or group is visibly disadvantaged compared to the wider community or nation which they belong to. Material deprivation is a concept based on the affordability of a range of goods and services required or desired by people to have an acceptable standard of living, taking into account the conditions of the country in which they live.
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
In this study, it is aimed to investigate the factors affecting the material deprivation status of individuals by using micro data sets of Income and Living Conditions Survey (SILC) conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat) in 2017 and 2018. Since material deprivation is also associated with poverty, determining the factors affecting material deprivation and also their effect sizes will guide decision makers in poverty reduction policies.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
Although there are studies in the literature examining the material deprivation of households, there are very few studies examining the material deprivation of individuals. There may be different material deprivation situations even for individuals living in the same household. Studies on poverty were generally carried out at the macro level or household level. In this study, contribution will be made to the material deprivation literature by working with individual based data at micro level. In particular, the handling and examination of six different dependent variables that show the material deprivation of individuals with a single model makes this study different from other studies in the literature.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
It is a study using quantitative methods to investigate the factors affecting the material deprivation of individuals by using the micro data sets of SILCs conducted by TurkStat.
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
While there are many studies on the determinants of income poverty, there are fewer studies on material deprivation. Although there are studies examining the material deprivation of households, there are very few studies examining the material deprivation of individuals. There may be different material deprivation situations even for individuals living in the same household.
2.3. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
In this study, the micro data sets of SILCs which was conducted by Turkish Statistical Institute in 2017 and 2018 was used. SILC covers all the settlements located within the borders of the Republic of Turkey.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
SPSS 20 and Stata 14 programs were used in the analysis of the data. Firstly, the frequency and percentages of the individuals participating in the research were obtained according to their material deprivation status and independent variables. Then, by using multivariate probit regression analysis, factors affecting the material deprivation situation were determined.
2.5. RESEARCH MODEL
Multivariate probit model is a preferred model when dependent variables are related to each other. When there is a relationship between dependent variables affected by the same explanatory variables, the multivariate probit model gives more effective results than the respective binary logit or probit model estimates for each dependent variable.
2.6. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
There is a relationship between individuals' material deprivation status and the individuals' participation year in the study, educational status, marital status, health status, chronic disease status, occupation and income level.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
12% of the individuals about “replacing old clothes”, 10.8% of the individuals about “having two pair of proper shoes that one of them is suitable for daily use”, and 20.1% of the individuals about “meeting friends, family / relatives to eat or drink something with them at home or outside (restaurants, patisseries, cafes etc.) at least once a month”, is suffering material deprivation. Similarly, 77.4% of the individuals about “regular participation in leisure activities such as sports, cinema, and concerts (by paying a fee)”, 16.9% about “spending a small amount of money for him/her to feel good (for his/her financial expenses) most weeks and 36.8% of the individuals about “having internet access for personal use at home” is experiencing material deprivation.
69% of the individuals participating in the study are married. 14% of individuals are not graduated from any schools, 32% are primary school graduates, 16% are secondary school graduates and while 18% are high school graduates, 19% are university graduates. It has been determined that 37% of the individuals participating in the study are not working in a job and also 15% of individuals are working in qualified agriculture, forestry and aquaculture jobs and in unqualified jobs.
HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
It was determined that the individuals' participation year to the research, educational status, marital status, health status, chronic disease status, profession and income level affected individuals' material deprivation status.
3.2. DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
In this study, similar results were obtained with the studies in the literature. As the income level and education level increase, individuals' material deprivation decreases. Individuals who have never married experience less material deprivation.
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE
1-) According to the analysis result, there is a positive relationship between the dependent variables and they can all be handled simultaneously in a single model.
2-) It was determined that the individuals participated in the survey in 2018 experienced less material deprivation than others.
3-) In general, it has been determined that married people experience more material deprivation than those whose spouse is dead / who is divorced and on the other hand individuals who have never married experience less material deprivation.
4-) It has been determined that as the education level of individuals increases their material deprivation decreases.
5-) As the health status of the individuals deteriorates, their material deprivation increases.
6-) It has been determined that as the income level of individuals increases, their material deprivation decreases.
4.2. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
Especially for low-income individuals, new clothing / shoes can be provided instead of cash money through district governorships / governorates. A check may be issued by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to students or individuals with low financial status for use only in cultural activities such as cinema, theater, and museum visits. Individuals can be socialized with friends, family / relatives through social activities that will be held on certain days in other months such as activities in Ramadan. Free wifi connection can be provided by determining the common areas of use in the villages, towns and city centers so that individuals do not experience deprivation about internet access.
4.3. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
This study has several limitations. First, the data in the study are secondary data. The variables required for statistical analysis consist of the variables in the dataset. Second, the data obtained in the study are the individuals' own answers. Therefore, the data obtained in this data collection method may be biased.