1.1. RESEARCH SUBJECT
This research investigates the effects of time management skills of the pilots working in civil aviation sector in Turkey on their individual performance. Domestic and foreign literature has limited studies about the aforementioned variables and most of those studies are conducted to investigate the relationship between time management skills of students and trainers in the education field and its influence on their academic performances. It can be understood that there are positive and significant relations between aforementioned variables (Adams and Blair, 2019; Alay and Koçak, 2003; Britton and Tesser, 1991; Erdem et. al., 2005; Mace and Tira, 1999; Tektaş and Tektaş, 2010; Macan and Shahani, 1990; Khan et. al., 2016). In addition to this, in the related literature, positive and significant relations between relevant variables are also found in the researches conducted at a limited number in different sectors (Doğutekin, 2015; Omar et. al., 2017; Sutharshini et. al., 2019; Anbea, 2018; Wilson, 2019).
1.2. RESEARCH PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE
In the profession of the pilot, which is necessary to plan time very well and seconds are of critical importance by its nature, the slightest delay or the smallest mistake can cause disasters. Analytical thinking, being able to work under stress and pressure, being detail-oriented, keeping up with the technology, being agile and dynamic, quick decision making, problem-solving ability, self-discipline, and technical skills have great importance and using these skills timely is crucial. The aim and importance of this study are to determine the relationship between time management skills which have an important role in using the aforementioned skills, within this framework.
1.3. CONTRIBUTION of the ARTICLE to the LITERATURE
Time management skills of pilots working in aviation sector have great importance in practicing their profession. Nevertheless, the relationship between time management skills of pilots and their performance has not been investigated in domestic and foreign literature before.
2. DESIGN AND METHOD
2.1. RESEARCH TYPE
This research is conducted using quantitative research methods and techniques. The cross-sectional pattern is used in this study which was prepared and conducted. A cross-sectional study is a type of quantitative research conducted by collecting data once from large numbers and relatively large samples in order to demonstrate the views and characteristics of a large number of participants (Cresswell, 2012).
2.2. RESEARCH PROBLEMS
The research problem is as follows:
Do time management skills of the pilots working in civil aviation sector affect their performance and its subdimensions (task and contextual performance)?
2.3. DATA COLLECTION METHOD
In the study, the survey method is used as a data collection tool and this questionnaire comprises three sections. In the first section, 8 questions are measuring the demographic characteristics of the participants.
In the second section, the scale developed by Goodman and Svyantek (1999) and adapted into Turkish by Polatcı (2011) is used to measure employee performance. While there are 25 statements in the original scale, 6 is removed from the scale by Polatcı (2011) and 2 is removed from the scale by the authors.
In the third part, the 5-dimensional time management skills scale obtained by adapting from the scales in the relevant literature is used to measure the time management skills. Within this scope, Time Management Inventory developed by Pfaff (2000) has been translated to Turkish and 14 statements regarded as irrelevant are removed from the scale. Besides, Time Management Skills Scale containing 31 statements generated by including 7 statements of Time Management Scale developed by Bahçecik et. al. (2004) and 7 statements added to the research by authors are used in the research.
The population is composed of the pilots working in civil aviation sector in Turkey. The research sample consists of 422 Turkish Airline Pilots Foundation members with 4501 members in the date range of data collection process.
2.4. QUANTITATIVE / QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS
In the study, answers of the participants who filled out the questionnaire were evaluated with Likert type scales (1: strongly disagree, 5: totally agree), and the data obtained were analyzed with SPSS 22 statistical program and LISREL 8.8 program (Confirmatory Factor Analysis). In order to determine the tests to be applied, firstly whether the data are normally distributed is inspected, and since the kurtosis and skewness values remained between +1.5 and -1.5 in both scales, it is understood that the distribution is normal and parametric tests are applied. Within this framework, the exploratory /confirmatory factor analysis, reliability analysis, and correlation and regression analysis are implemented.
2.5. RESEARCH MODEL AND HYPOTHESES
In the research, while individual performances of pilots constitute the dependent variable, time management skills of pilots constitute the independent variable. Developed hypothesis are as follows:
H1: Time management skills affect individual performance positively.
H1a: Time management skills affect task performance positively.
H1b: Time management skills affect contextual performance positively.
3. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. FINDINGS as a RESULT of ANALYSIS
According to the exploratory factor analysis; the individual performance scale consists of two sub-dimensions; task performance and contextual performance. In addition, time management skills scale consists of a total of 5 sub-dimensions, namely setting priorities and deadlines/ planning/ social activities and family/ haste and inability to accomplish tasks in time/ time killers. According to confirmatory factor analysis conducted in accordance with exploratory factor analysis, it is understood that the obtained goodness of compatibility values is compatible and acceptable.
According to conducted reliability factor analysis, Cronbach's Alpha value of individual performance is calculated as α =0.873, and Cronbach's Alpha value of time management skills is calculated as α =0.838.
According to the results of conducted correlation analysis, there is a correlation between time management skills and individual performance, task performance and contextual performance, respectively, r =0.50, r =0.55, and r =0.29.
3.2. HYPOTHESIS TEST RESULTS
According to the results of the regression analysis, it is determined that the pilots have a variance of 24% in explaining the individual performance of their time management skills. In addition to that, it is found that pilots' time management skills have a variance of 30% in explaining the task performance and variance of 8% in explaining the contextual performance.
3.3. DISCUSSING the FINDINGS with the LITERATURE
The obtained results show similarities to the results of the research on the relationship between the time management skills of students and trainers in education field and their performance in literature (Adams and Blair, 2019; Alay and Koçak, 2003; Britton and Tesser, 1991; Erdem et al., 2005; Mace and Tira, 1999; Tektaş and Tektaş, 2010; Macan and Shahani, 1990; Khan et al., 2016). Moreover, a positive and significant relationship between time management skills and employees' performances has been determined through the research on the managers working in textile sector in İstanbul by Doğutekin (2015), through the research on employees in 4 different sectors (manufacturing, health, accommodation, education) in Malaysia by Omar et al. (2017), through the research on the employees of a financial institution in Sri Lanka by Sutharshini et al. (2019), through the research on the employees of 3 telecommunication companies in Libya by Anbea (2018). In this context, our research findings that pilots' time management skills affect their performance positively and significantly appear to be consistent with the other research results in the literature.
4. CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION AND LIMITATIONS
4.1. RESULTS of the ARTICLE
Within the scope of the research, the data obtained from 422 pilots working in the civil aviation sector are analyzed and the following results are achieved:
-Time management skills affect individual performance positively and significantly.
-Time management skills affect task performance positively and significantly.
-Time management skills affect contextual performance positively and significantly.
4.2. SUGGESTIONS BASED on RESULTS
Based on the results obtained;
-It is foreseen that a more holistic perspective in the sector can be provided by expanding the sample size and adding cabin crews to the population.
-Researchers consider that it would be appropriate to use qualitative methods besides the quantitative method in order to directly examine the pilots' perceptions of time management skills and performance.
4.3. LIMITATIONS of the ARTICLE
The limitations of the research are as follows:
-Analyzing time management skills and individual performance variables only in terms of individuals' perceptions constitutes the most important limitation of the study.
-Since the research is carried out within the scope of the doctoral thesis, the fact that it is performed in a limited time and without a wider sample constitutes another limitation of the research.
- Adams, R. V. and E. Blair. (2019), “Impact of Time Management Behaviors on Undergraduate Engineering Students’ Performance”, SAGE Open, 9(1), 1- 11.
- Akalın, Z. D. (2019), “Pilotlar Üzerindeki Stres Faktörleri ve İş Performansı Arasındaki İlişkiler”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Akçinar, S. (2014). “Örgütsel Zaman Yönetimi ve Etkin Zaman Kullanımı”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Alay, S. ve S. Koçak. (2003), “Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Zaman Yönetimleri İle Akademik Başarıları Arasındaki İlişki”, Eğitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 35, 326-335.
- Anbea, A. M. A. (2018), “Time Management and Its Impact on Employees’ Performance Level: Case Study on the Cellular Communications Companies in Libya”, Master's Thesis, Karabuk University Institute of Social Sciences.
- Ardıç, C. (2010), “Zaman Yönetimi ve Zaman Yönetiminde Dönüştürücü Liderlerin Davranışlarını Belirlemeye Yönelik Bir Araştırma”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Bahçecik, N., H. Öztürk ve G. A. Şerbetçi. (2004), “Yönetici Hemşireler İçin Zaman Yönetimi Ölçeği ve Zaman Yönetimini Etkileyen Faktörler”, Yönetim Dergisi. 15(49), 67-78.
- Borman, W. C. (2004), “The Concept of Organizational Citizenship”, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), 238-241.
- Borman, W. C. and S. J. Motowidlo. (1993) “Expanding The Criterion Domain to Include Elements of Contextual Performance”, Personnel Selection in Organizations. ed. N. Schmitt, W. C. Borman. San Francisco: Wiley: 71-98.
- Britton, B. and A. Tesser. (1991), “Effects of Time Management Practices on College Grades”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 405-410.
- Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002), “Faktör Analizi: Temel Kavramlar ve Ölçek Geliştirmede Kullanımı”, Eğitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 32, 470-433.
- Casel, M. (1997), “Learn to Say No or Yes, But Not Now”, Management Today, 27(4), 92-96.
- Caz, Ç., V. Aydoğdu, H. M. Tunçkol ve E. Öncü. (2015), “Zaman Yönetimi Becerisi ve Stres İlişkisi: Beden Eğitimi Ve Spor Yüksekokulu Öğrencileri Örneği”, Akademik Bakış Dergisi, 50, 278-287.
- Creswell, J. W. (2012), Educational Research: Planning, Conducting, and Evaluating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Boston: MA Pearson.
- Çakmak, Z. ve G. Şenyiğit. (2006), “Sekreterlerin Zamanı Verimli Kullanmalarını Etkileyen Faktörler”, Akademik Bakış Dergisi, 10, 1-18.
- Demirtaş, H. ve N. Özer. (2007), “Öğretmen Adaylarının Zaman Yönetimi Becerileri İle Akademik Başarısı Arasındaki İlişkisi”, Eğitimde Politika Analizleri ve Stratejik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 2(1), 16-37.
- Doğutekin, C. (2015), “Zaman Yönetimi ile Yöneticinin Kişisel Performans İlişkisi”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Gelişim Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Durmaz, M., T. Hüseyinli ve C. Güçlü. (2016), “Zaman Yönetimi Becerileri ile Akademik Başarı Arasındaki İlişki”, İnsan ve Toplum Bilimleri Araştırmaları Dergisi, 5(7), 2291-2303.
- Erdem, R., E. Pirinçci ve E. Dikmetaş. (2005), “Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Zaman Yönetimi Davranışları ve Bu Davranışların Akademik Başarı ile İlişkisi”, Manas Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 14, 67-177.
- Ekinci, S., (2018), “Profesyonel Öğrenme Topluluğu, Psikolojik Sahiplenme ve Bağlamsal Performans Arasındaki İlişki”, Doktora Tezi, Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü.
- Goodman, S. A. and D. J. Svyantek. (1999), “Person-Organization Fit and Contextual Performance: Do Shared Values Matter”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55, 254-275.
- Güçlü, N. (2001), “Zaman Yönetimi”, Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi Dergisi, 7(25), 87-106.
- Güney, S. (2009), Davranış Bilimleri. İstanbul: Nobel Yayıncılık.
- Harmancı, Y. K. (2018), “Örgütsel Yaşamda Kişilik ve Performans İlişkisinde Pozitif Duygusallığın Aracı Rolü”, İşletme Araştırmaları Dergisi, 10(1), 321-341.
- Jamal, M. (1984), “Job Stress and Job Performance Controversy: An Empirical Assessment”, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33(1), 1-21.
- Jawahar, I. M. and D. Carr. (2007), “Conscientiousness and Contextual Performance the Compensatory Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 330-349.
- Khan, H. M. A., M. T. K. Farooqi, A. Khalil and I. Faisal. (2016), “ Exploring Relationship of Time Management with Teachers’ Performance”, Bulletin of Educationand Research, 38(2), 249-263.
- Kline, R. B. (2011), Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. London: The Guilford Press.
- Kopt, H. (1966), New Perspectives in Management. Londra: Hill Book Company.
- Lakein, A. (1973), How to Get Control of Your Time and Your Life. New York: New American Library.
- Macan, T. H. and C. Shahani. (1990), “College Students Time Management: Correlation with Academic Performance and Stress”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 760-768.
- Mace, J. G. and D. E. Tira. (1999), “Time Management Behaviors As Potential Explanatory Factors in Dental Academic Achievement”, Journal of Dental Education, 63(10), 738-744.
- Marchant, T. (1999), “Strategies for Improving Individual Performance and Job Satisfaction at Meadowvale Health”, Journal of Management Practice, 2(3), 63-70.
- Maslach, C. and J. Goldberg. (1998), “Prevention of Burnout: New Perspectives”, Applied&Preventive Psychology, 7, 63-74.
- Mayer, J. (1995), Time Management for Dummies. New York: IDG Books.
- Morillo, C. R. (1990), “The Reward Event and Motivation”, The Journal of Philosophy, 87(4), 169-186.
- Motowidlo, S. J., W. C. Borman and M. J. Schmit. (1997), “A Theory of Individual Differences in Task and Contextual Performance”, Human Performance, 10(2), 71- 83.
- Omar, K., M. M. Anuar, A. Y. Yaakop, M. A. S. A. Halim, M. Harun and T. C. Hau. (2017), “The Influence of Personal Engagement and Time Management on Employees’ Job Performance”, Advanced Science Letters, 23(4), 3009-3012.
- Özçelik, N., M. Gülsün, F. Özçelik ve M. Öztosun. (2012), “Yöneticilerin Zaman Yönetimi Becerilerinin İş Stresi Üzerine Etkisi”, Anadolu Klinik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 6(4), 231-238.
- Özdevecioğlu, M. ve S. Kanıgür. (2009), “Çalışanların İlişki ve Görev Yönelimli Liderlik Algılamalarının Performansları Üzerindeki Etkileri”, KMU İİBF Dergisi, 11(16), 53-82.
- Özpehlivan, M. (2015), “Kültürel Farklılıkların İşletmelerde Örgüt İçi İletişim, İş Tatmini, Bireysel Performans ve Örgütsel Bağlılık Kavramları Arasındaki İlişkiye Etkileri: Türkiye-Rusya Örneği”, Doktora Tezi, Okan Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Pfaff, L. (2000), “Time Management Practices Inventory: Training Manual”, Portage. MI: Pfaff & Associates.
- Pinder, C. C. (1984), “Work Motivation; Theory, Issues, and Applications”, Glenview: Foresman and Company.
- Polatcı, S. (2011), “Psikolojik Sermayenin Performans Üzerindeki Etkisinde İş Aile Yayılımı Ve Psikolojik İyi Oluşun Rolü”, Doktora Tezi, Erciyes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Seri, K. (2010), “Zaman Etüdünün Uzun Vadeli Verimliliğe Etkisi: Bir Gıda Firmasında Ampirik Bir Değerlendirme”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Sevim Kılıç, S. (2015), “Zaman Yönetimi ve Zamanı Etkin Kullanma (Rize Aile Hekimliği Çalışanları Örneği)”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Smith, J. (1998), Daha İyi Nasıl Zaman Yönetimi. çev. A. Çimen. İstanbul: Timaş Yayınları.
- Smith, C. A., D. W. Organ and J. P. Near. (1983), “Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature and Antecedents”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 68: 653-663.
- Sutharshini, B., N. Thevanes and A. A. Arulrajah. (2019), “Effective Time Management as a Tool for Individual and Organizational Performance in Financial Institutions”, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18(2), 25-41.
- Tektaş, M. ve N. Tektaş. (2010), “Meslek Yüksekokulu Öğrencilerinin Zaman Yönetimi ve Akademik Başarıları Arasındaki İlişki”, Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi. 23, 221-229.
- Torres, M., M. Duarte and O. Conceição. (2019), “TheInfluence of Time Management Behaviours on Performance and Stress. Proceedings of the European Conference on Management”, Leadership&Governance, 374-382.
- Tuna, G. (2019), “Kabin Memurlarının Tükenmişlik Düzeylerinin Örgütsel Bağlılık ve Çalışma Performanslarına Etkisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma”, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Beykent Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
- Wilson, D. B. (2009), “Examining the Relationship Between Personal Time Management and Industrial Sales Representative Performance”, PhD Thesis, University of Phoenix.
- Yakubu, A. and B. Edna. (2015), “Impact of Self Organizationand Time Managementon Staff Performance and Service Delivery”, International Journal of Public Administration and Management Research, 3(2), 52-61.
- Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017), “Sosyal Bilimlerde Faktör Analizi ve Geçerlilik: Keşfedici ve Doğrulayıcı Faktör Analizlerinin Kullanılması”, İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46, 74-85.