BUSINESS-NGO INTERACTIONS FOR CORPORATE SUSTAINABILITY: REASONS AND OUTCOMES
- Corporate Sustainability Theory, NGOs, Case Study
- Kurumsal Sürdürülebilirlik Yaklaşımı, Sivil Toplum Kuruluşları, Örnek Olay İncelemesi
How to Cite
To adopt the interconnected dimensions of the corporate sustainability approach and to have a successful sustainability performance, businesses need varied resources and partners. NGOs have become an important strategic partner for businesses in designing and implementing corporate sustainability activities. Based on the corporate sustainability approach, this study aims to examine the reasons and the consequences of business-NGO collaborations through the relevant literature and the case study methodology. Supporting previous research the examined cases-Turkcell, Vodafone, Türk Telekom cooperates with NGOs for strategy implementation, legitimacy assurance, resources and skills access, social benefit and new product/market development. Further, the companies can reach many consequences that can create competitive advantage as integrating sustainability to strategies, enhancing legitimacy and performance, increasing brand equity, attracting and retaining quality human resources and improving innovation capability thanks to collaborations formed with NGOs. Additionally, it was found that the examined companies mostly interact with sectoral NGOs and they only have a few interaction related to eco-innovation, a rising issue in the industry.
- Andreopoulou, Z. (2012). Green Informatics: ICT for green and Sustainability. Agrárinformatika/Journal of Agricultural Informatics, 3(2), 1-8.
- Ashby, A., Leat, M., & Hudson-Smith, M. (2012). Making connections: a review of supply chain management and sustainability literature, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 17(5), 497-516.
- Ashman, D. (2001). Civil society collaboration with business: Bringing empowerment back in, World Development, 19(7): 1097-1113.
- Austin, J.E., & Seitanidi, M.M. (2012). Collaborative Value Creation: A Review of Partnering Between Nonprofits and Businesses: Part I. Value Creation Spectrum and Collaboration Stages, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 41(5): 726-758.
- Barney, J. B. (1991). Firm resources and sustainable competitive advantage, Journal of Management, 17(1),99–120.
- Baumgartner, R. J., & Ebner, D. (2010). Corporate sustainability strategies: sustainability profiles and maturity levels, Sustainable Development, 18(2), 76-89.
- Bendell, J. (2000). Civil Regulation: A New Form of Democratic Governance for the Global Economy, Jem Bendell (Ed.), Terms of Endearment: Business, NGOs and Sustainable Development, Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing, 239-254.
- Bhattacharya, C. B., Sen, S., & Korschun, D. (2008). Using corporate social responsibility to win the war for talent, MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(2), 37-44.
- Bocken, N. M., Short, S. W., Rana, P., & Evans, S. (2014). A literature and practice review to develop sustainable business model archetypes. Journal of cleaner production, 65, 42-56.
- Bonn, I., & Fisher, J. (2011). Sustainability: the missing ingredient in strategy, Journal of Business Strategy, 32(1), 5-14.
- Brønn, P. S., & Vidaver-Cohen, D. (2009). Corporate motives for social initiative: Legitimacy, sustainability, or the bottom line?, Journal of Business Ethics, 87(1), 91-109.
- Byiers, B., Guadagno, F., & Karaki, K. (December, 2015). From looking good to doing good: Mapping CSO-business partnerships. Discussion Paper, No. 182. European Centre for Development Policy Management, www.ecdpm.org/dp182.
- C&E (2013). Corporate-NGO Partnerships Barometer 2013, London.
- Chomsky, N. (1999). Profit Over People: Neoliberalism and the Global Order, A Seven Stories Press: New York.
- Christofi, A., Christofi, P., & Sisaye, S. (2012). Corporate sustainability: historical development and reporting practices, Management Research Review, 35(2), 157-172.
- Creswell, J.W. (2013). Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches (3rd ed.), Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
- Dahan, N.M., Doh, J. P., Oetzel, J., and Yaziji, M. (2010). Corporate-NGO Collaboration: Co-creating NewBusiness Models for Developing Markets, Long Range Planning, 43: 326-342.
- Darko, E. (2014). Private Sector and NGO Engagement: Descriptive List of the Main Ways the Private Sector and NGOs Currently Collaborate in Development Work, EPS PEAKS, London
- Davis, G. F., & Cobb, J. (2010). Resource Dependence Theory: Past and future. Research in the Sociology of Organizations, 28 21-42.
- den Hond, Frank, Frank G.A. de Bakker ve Jonathan Doh (2015). What Prompts Companies to Collaboration With NGOs? Recent Evidence From the Netherlands, Business & Society, 54 (2): 187–228.
- Drucker, P. F. (1993). Kapitalist Ötesi Toplum (çev. B. Çorakçı). İstanbul: İnkılap Kitapevi.
- Galaskiewicz, J., and Sinclair Colman, M. (2006). Collaboration between corporations and non-profit organization, W. Powell and R. Steinberg (Eds), The Nonprofit Sector: A Research Handbook, New Haven: Yale University Press, 180-204.
- Giovannucci, D., von Hagen, O., and Wozniak, J. (2014). Corporate Social Responsibility and the role of Voluntary Sustainability Standards, in C. Schmitz-Hoffman (Ed.), Voluntary Standards Systems: A Contribution to Sustainable Development, New York : Springer, 359-384.
- Graafland, J. & B. Van de Ven (2006). Strategic and Moral Motivation for Corporate Social Responsibilty, Journal of Corporate Citizenship, 22, 111–123.
- Gray, B., & Stites, J.P. (2013). Sustainability through Partnerships: Capitalizing on Collaboration. Network for Business Sustainability, nbs.net/knowledge (Erişim tarihi: 22.01.2019).
- Hamann, R., & Acutt, N. (2003). How should civil society (and the government) respond to'corporate social responsibility'? A critique of business motivations and the potential for partnerships. Development Southern Africa, 20(2), 255-270.
- Hof, S. D. (2009). Türkiye’de Kurumsal Sosyal Sorumluluk Üçgeni: Şirketler, Toplum ve Toplum Kuruluşları. TUBITAK PROJECT.
- Husted, B. and Salazar, J.D.J. (2006). Taking Friedman seriously: maximizing profits and social performance, Journal of Management Studies, 43 (1), 75-91.
- Kolk, Ans, Rob van Tulder ve Esther Kostwinder (2008). Business and Partnerships for Development, European Management Journal, 26 (4): 262-273.
- Kolk, A. (2014). Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems? On rationale, context, actors, impacts and limitations, M. Seitanidi and A. Crane (Eds), Social partnerships and responsible business: A research handbook, London: Routledge, 15-43.
- Kuenkel, P. Aitken, A. (2015). Key Factors for the Successful Implementation of Stakeholder Partnerships: The Case of the African Cashew Initiative, Bitzer, V., Hamann, R., Hall, M., Griffin-EL, E.W. (Eds.), The Business of Social and Environmental Innovation - New Frontiers in Africa. Springer International.
- Linna, P. (2012). Base of the pyramid (BOP) as a source of innovation: Experiences of companies in the Kenyan mobile sector. International Journal of Technology Management & Sustainable Development, 11(2), 113-137.
- López, M. V., Garcia, A., & Rodriguez, L. (2007). Sustainable development and corporate performance: A study based on the Dow Jones sustainability index. Journal of Business Ethics, 75(3), 285-300.
- Lo, S. F., & Sheu, H. J. (2007). Is corporate sustainability a value‐increasing strategy for business?. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15(2), 345-358.
- Lubritto, C., Petraglia, A., Vetromile, C., Curcuruto, S., Logorelli, M., Marsico, G., & D’Onofrio, A. (2011). Energy and environmental aspects of mobile communication systems. Energy, 36(2), 1109-1114.
- McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. (2001). Corporate social responsibility: A theory of the firm perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26: 117-127.
- McWilliams, A., & Siegel, D. S. (2011). Creating and capturing value: Strategic corporate social responsibility, resource-based theory, and sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1480-1495.
- Meyer, A. D. (1991). What is strategy's distinctive competence? Journal of Management, 17: 821-833.
- Monzer, D. A., Rebs, T., Khalid, R. U., & Brandenburg, M. (2018). Sustainable Supply Chain Management at the Base of Pyramid: A Literature Review. Social and Environmental Dimensions of Organizations and Supply Chains, Springer, Cham, 235-257.
- Orlitzky, M., Schmidt F. L., & Rynes S. L. (2003). Corporate Social and Financial Performance: A Metaanalysis, Organizational Studies, 24(3), 403–441.
- Roychoudhuri, R., Debnath, B., De, D., Albores, P., Banerjee, C., & Ghosh, S. K. (2019). Estimation of E-waste Generation—A Lifecycle-Based Approach. In Waste Management and Resource Efficiency (pp. 825-832). Springer, Singapore.
- Perez-Aleman, P., and Sandilands, M. (2008), Building value at the top and bottom of the global supply chain: MNC-NGO partnerships and sustainability, California Management Review, 51(1): 24-49.
- Pinz, A., Roudyani, N., & Thaler, J. (2018). Public–private partnerships as instruments to achieve sustainability-related objectives: the state of the art and a research agenda. Public Management Review, 20(1), 1-22.
- Polat Dede, N. (2019). Enhancing Employee Innovative Work Behavior Through Human Resource Management Practices. In H. Dinçer, & S. Yüksel (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Managerial Thinking in Global Business Economics (pp. 1-21). Hershey, PA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-7180-3.ch001
- Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2006). The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78-92.
- Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). Creating shared value: How to reinvent capitalism—And unleash a wave of innovation and growth (pp. 2–17). Watertown: Harvard Business Review.
- Prahalad, C. K. (2008), Piramidin Altındaki Servet, Çev. Demirci, S., Sistem Yayıncılık, İstanbul.
- Prahalad, C. K. (2012). Bottom of the Pyramid as a Source of Breakthrough Innovations. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 29(1), 6-12.
- Runhaar, H., & Lafferty, H. (2009). Governing corporate social responsibility: An assessment of the contribution of the UN Global Compact to CSR strategies in the telecommunications industry. Journal of Business Ethics, 84(4), 479-495.
- Salzmann, O., Ionescu-Somers, A., & Steger, U. (2005). The business case for corporate sustainability: literature review and research options. European Management Journal, 23(1), 27-36.
- Slack, R. E., Corlett, S., & Morris, R. (2015). Exploring employee engagement with (corporate) social responsibility: A social exchange perspective on organisational participation, Journal of Business Ethics, 127(3), 537-548.
- Shumate, M., Hsieh, Y. P., & O’Connor, A. (2018). A nonprofit perspective on business–nonprofit partnerships: Extending the symbiotic sustainability model, Business & Society, 57(7), 1337-1373.
- Starik, M., & Kanashiro, P. (2013). Toward a theory of sustainability management: Uncovering and integrating the nearly obvious. Organization & Environment, 26(1), 7-30.
- United Nations General Assembly. (1987). Report of the world commission on environment and development: Our common future.Oslo, Norway: United Nations General Assembly, Development and International Co-operation: Environment.
- Tennyson, R., Gray, T., and Lobo, I. (2008), Emerging Opportunities for NGO-business partnerships, Feedback from the Cross Sector Partnership project.
- Venkataraman, S. (March 2019). Stakeholder Approach To Corporate Sustainability: A Review, Working Paper, No. 319.
- Wagner, M., & Schaltegger, S. (2003). How does sustainability performance relate to business competitiveness?. Greener Management International, 5-16.